Table 2

Characteristics of Knowsley and matched control LSOAs in preintervention period (2005–2010)

Knowsley LSOAs
(no=98)
Control LSOAs
(no=392)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)P value*
IMD score41.99 (20.65)37.96 (21.35)<0.001
Distance to hospital with A&E (km)5.47 (2.5)5.36 (2.84)0.401
Working age population unemployed (%)4.99 (2.76)4.54 (2.97)0.001
GPs per 1000 population0.64 (0.12)0.63 (0.13)0.002
Population (number)1508.79 (244.92)1496.45 (246.56)0.702
Female population (number)792.08 (129.75)779.55 (129.69)0.032
Population aged 50+ years (number)496.81 (109.49)499.59 (119.93)0.610
QOF: COPD prevalence (%)3.07 (0.33)2.84 (0.63)<0.001
QOF: smoking prevalence (%)25.83 (4.77)24.82 (5.45)<0.001
QOF: those with COPD receiving inhaled treatment whose inhaler technique has been checked (%)88.13 (9.21)89.06 (5.06)<0.001
Emergency admissions for COPD per 100 000 population per year519.99 (402.33)468.46 (389.75)0.004
  • *Statistical significance of the difference between the groups tested using t-tests for normally distributed variables, or the Man-Whitney U test as a non-parametric equivalent.

  • A&E, accident and emergency department; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GP, general practitioner; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; LSOA, lower-layer super output area; QOF, quality and outcomes framework.