Table 1

Baseline characteristics by sex-specific quartiles of energy-adjusted residuals of vitamin K1 intake: the Hordaland Health Study

TotalQ1Q2Q3Q4P trend*
Subjects, n2987746747748746
Age, years48 (47 to 48)48 (47 to 48)48 (47 to 48)48 (48 to 49)48 (47 to 49)0.135
Men1279 (42.8)319 (42.8)320 (42.8)321 (42.9)319 (42.8)0.993
Any college and/or university education1136 (38.3)265 (36.0)288 (38.9)289 (38.8)294 (39.6)0.018
Family history of CHD1183 (40.9)314 (43.3)309 (42.6)286 (39.3)274 (38.4)0.034
Smoking habits0.104
 Previous smokers914 (31.3)214 (29.4)227 (30.8)237 (32.4)236 (32.5)
 Current smokers978 (33.5)239 (32.8)231 (31.4)261 (35.7)247 (34.0)
Physical activity<0.001
 None741 (25.8)198 (27.8)201 (28.0)188 (26.0)154 (21.4)
 <1 hour/week810 (28.2)226 (31.7)192 (26.7)201 (27.8)191 (26.5)
 1–2 hours/week907 (31.6)207 (29.0)239 (33.3)226 (31.3)235 (32.6)
 ≥3 hours/week415 (14.4)82 (11.5)86 (12.0)107 (14.8)140 (19.4)
Hypertension707 (23.7)172 (23.1)176 (23.6)185 (24.7)174 (23.3)0.945
Glucose intolerance0.875
 Pre-diabetes66 (2.2)24 (3.2)12 (1.6)14 (1.9)16 (2.2)
 Diabetes27 (0.9)8 (1.1)4 (0.5)5 (0.7)10 (1.4)
Body mass index, kg/m224.9 (22.8 to 27.4)25.0 (22.8 to 27.4)25.0 (22.8 to 27.6)24.9 (22.9 to 27.5)24.7 (22.6 to 27.2)0.148
Waist circumference, cm85.0 (77.0 to 94.0)85.0 (77.0 to 94.0)85.0 (77.0 to 94.0)85.0 (77.0 to 93.0)85.0 (76.0 to 93.0)0.266
Serum cholesterol, mmol/L5.65 (5.06 to 6.30)5.58 (5.05 to 6.25)5.70 (5.11 to 6.44)5.66 (5.05 to 6.27)5.65 (5.03 to 6.25)0.331
Serum LDL-C, mmol/L3.56 (3.01 to 4.17)3.53 (2.98 to 4.14)3.65 (3.06 to 4.29)3.56 (3.02 to 4.11)3.54 (2.94 to 4.10)0.072
Serum HDL-C, mmol/L1.28 (1.06 to 1.53)1.27 (1.04 to 1.52)1.28 (1.07 to 1.51)1.27 (1.05 to 1.53)1.31 (1.07 to 1.58)0.004
Serum triglycerides, mmol/L1.40 (1.01 to 2.03)1.43 (1.01 to 2.02)1.39 (1.00 to 1.99)1.39 (1.04 to 2.11)1.38 (0.98 to 2.05)0.462
Energy intake, kcal/day2057 (1690 to 2550)2152 (1712 to 2671)1944 (1608 to 2353)2032 (1627 to 2485)2171 (1775 to 2687)<0.001
Dietary intake
 Total vitamin K, µg/day120 (85 to 175)78 (58 to 99)95 (76 to 118)137 (111 to 161)234 (189 to 301)<0.001
 Total vitamin K, µg/day/1000 kcal56 (43 to 79)36 (31 to 42)49 (44 to 55)65 (57 to 76)105 (84 to 144)<0.001
 Vitamin K2, µg/day15 (11 to 21)16 (12 to 22)14 (11 to 20)15 (11 to 20)15 (12 to 20)0.336
 Vitamin K2, µg/day/1000 kcal7 (6 to 9)8 (6 to 9)7 (6 to 9)7 (6 to 9)7 (6 to 9)<0.001
 Vitamin K1, µg/day103 (69 to 157)61 (44 to 77)81 (63 to 101)121 (99 to 143)218 (172 to 282)<0.001
 Vitamin K1 µg/day/1000 kcal48 (35 to 71)29 (23 to 33)41 (37 to 47)58 (50 to 67)98 (77 to 136)<0.001
 Total fat, E%32 (29 to 36)32 (28 to 35)33 (29 to 36)33 (30 to 37)33 (29 to 36)<0.001
 SFA, E%13 (11 to 14)13 (11 to 14)13 (11 to 14)13 (11 to 14)12 (11 to 14)0.004
 PUFA, E%7 (6 to 8)6 (5 to 7)7 (6 to 8)7 (6 to 9)7 (6 to 9)<0.001
 MUFA, E%10 (9 to 12)10 (9 to 11)10 (9 to 12)11 (9 to 12)10 (9 to 12)0.357
 Protein, E%16 (14 to 17)16 (14 to 17)16 (14 to 17)16 (14 to 17)16 (15 to 18)<0.001
 Carbohydrates, E%49 (46 to 53)50 (47 to 54)50 (46 to 53)49 (45 to 52)48 (45 to 52)<0.001
 Alcohol, E%1 (0 to 3)1 (0 to 3)1 (0 to 3)2 (0 to 3)2 (1 to 3)0.001
 Folate, µg/day/1000 kcal110 (95 to 133)99 (88 to 113)105 (93 to 121)112 (98 to 131)135 (113 to 164)<0.001
 Fibre, g/day/1000 kcal11 (10 to 13)10 (9 to 12)11 (10 to 13)11 (10 to 13)13 (11 to 16)<0.001
Intake of food items, g/day/1000 kcal
 Butter†0 (1.2)0 (1.3)0 (1.1)0 (1.1)0 (1.2)0.749
 Margarine3 (2 to 8)2 (1 to 3)3 (2 to 8)3 (2 to 11)3 (2 to 9)<0.001
 Cheese13 (7 to 21)15 (8 to 24)13 (7 to 22)12 (7 to 19)12 (6 to 20)<0.001
 Yoghurt5 (0 to 18)6 (0 to 21)5 (0 to 16)6 (0 to 18)5 (0 to 17)0.740
 Milk and milk products129 (65 to 205)157 (86 to 230)134 (71 to 220)127 (57 to 193)105 (51 to 174)<0.001
 Sausages20 (2 to 49)17 (1 to 47)18 (1 to 47)21 (4 to 53)21 (5 to 53)0.067
 Meat55 (41 to 70)54 (39 to 68)55 (42 to 73)56 (43 to 70)53 (40 to 67)0.651
 Minced meat24 (16 to 34)25 (15 to 35)25 (16 to 35)25 (16 to 34)22 (14 to 31)<0.001
 Soft drinks with sugar25 (0 to 65)31 (3 to 76)28 (2 to 69)24 (0 to 61)18 (0 to 51)<0.001
 Fruit and berries104 (65 to 154)91 (56 to 132)103 (67 to 150)105 (68 to 167)114 (71 to 164)<0.001
 Vegetables85 (54 to 131)49 (35 to 72)74 (53 to 101)98 (67 to 134)154 (104 to 212)<0.001
  • Values are presented as N (%) and median (interquartile range) for continuous and categorical data, respectively.

  • *Logistic regression for dichotomous categories, ordered logistic regression when more than two categories and linear regression for continuous variables where median residuals within each quartile group was used as the independent variable in the analyses.

  • †Mean (median) are reported due to a large proportion with zero intake.

  • CHD, coronary heart disease; E%, energy per cent; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; Q, quartile; SFA, saturated fatty acids.