Table 1

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants (n=209)

Participant characteristicsN (%) or mean (±SD)
Sex
 Male168 (80.4)
 Female41 (19.6)
Age (years)60.2 (±10.1)
BMI (kg/m2)26.3 (±5.2)
Duration of diabetes (years)13.3 (±9.4)
Primary treatment
 Oral hypoglycemic agents123 (58.9)
 Insulin injections15 (7.2)
 Insulin injections and oral hypoglycemic agents44 (21.1)
 Other injectable medications (other than insulin)14 (6.7)
 Lifestyle13 (6.2)
Number of diabetes-related complications (0–6)*0.57 (±0.86)
HbA1c (%)7.3 (±1.2)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)56 (±13.1)
Education (years)13.9 (±2.3)
Marital status
 Married151 (72.2)
 Unmarried/divorced/bereaved58 (27.8)
Self-stigma†71.1 (±16.6)
Self-esteem27.7 (±3.6)
Self-efficacy§10.1 (±4.1)
Depression symptoms4.2 (±4.3)
Patient activation**51.8 (±9.3)
  • *The Diabetes Complications Index.

  • †The Japanese version of the scale (SSS-J).

  • ‡The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

  • §The General Self-Efficacy Scale.

  • ¶The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).

  • **The Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13).

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c level.