Table 4

Level of Evidence in AOM guidelines

CountryGrading system for LoE *Score: consideration of benefits and harms (AGREE II Item 11†)Score: strengths and limitations of the evidence (AGREE II Item 9)Score: link between recommendations and evidence (AGREE II
Item 12)
BelgiumINAMI576
Czech Republic112
DenmarkOCEBM776
FinlandDuodecim166
FranceANAES311
GermanyAWMF633
Ireland111
ItalyPNLG556
Luxembourg312
The Netherlands775
Norway113
PolandInfectious Disease Society of America635
PortugalEuropean Society of Cardiology224
Sweden331
Switzerland111
SpainInfectious Disease Society of America527
UKSIGN776
USAAAP777
WHOGRADE776
  • *If no LoE scale used, it is denoted by –.

  • †AGREE II scores: 1=no information in the guideline; 7=exceptional reporting.

  • AAP, The American Association of Pediatrics; ANAES, l'Agence Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Évaluation en Santé ; AOM, acute otitis media; AWMF, Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften; GRADE, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations; INAMI, Institut National d'Assurance Maladie-Invalidité; LoE, level of evidence; OCEBM, Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine; PNLG, Programma Nazionale Linee Guida; SIGN, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.