Table 3

Demographic, HIV status and surgical characteristics associated with not getting linked for ASRH services within 3 months of referral from the selected VMMC health facilities in Zimbabwe, October and November 2018

CharacteristicCategoryTotalNot linked to ASRH, n (%)*Linked to ASRH, n (%)Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)†P value
Total14781015 (68.7)463 (31.3)
Age (in years)10–14980671 (68.5)309 (31.5)1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)0.828
15–19314200 (63.7)114 (36.3)11
20–24184144 (78.3)40 (21.7)1.2 (1.1 to 1.4)1.1 (1.0 to 1.3)0.168
EducationOut of school427297 (69.6)130 (30.4)1.1 (1.0 to 1.3)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)0.560
Primary899622 (69.2)277 (30.8)1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)1.0 (0.9 to 1.2)0.632
Secondary15296 (63.2)56 (36.8)11
Referred byFriend/partner3722 (59.5)15 (40.5)11
Health worker216164 (75.9)52 (24.1)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)0.207
Community mobiliser1032694 (67.3)338 (32.7)1.1 (0.9 to 1.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)0.453
Others139106 (76.3)33 (23.7)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)1.0 (0.8 to 1.4)0.849
Missing5429 (53.7)25 (46.3)0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)1.2 (0.8 to 1.6)0.345
Health facilityMt Darwin542330 (60.9)212 (39.1)11
Lobengula MC587386 (65.8)201 (34.2)1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)1.1 (1.0 to 1.3)0.087
Bulawayo MC349299 (85.7)50 (14.3)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)1.5 (1.3 to 1.7)<0.001
HIV statusPositive65 (83.3)1 (16.7)1.2 (0.8 to 1.7)1.3 (0.9 to 1.9)0.117
Negative14721010 (68.6)462 (31.4)11
Reasons for MC
HIV preventionYes1230865 (85.2)365 (14.8)1.2 (1.0 to 1.3)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)0.800
No248150 (60.5)98 (39.5)11
Sexual pleasureYes248158 (63.7)90 (36.3)0.9 (0.8 to 1.0)0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)0.593
No1230857 (69.7)373 (30.3)11
STI preventionYes736523 (71.1)213 (28.9)1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)0.980
No742492 (66.3)250 (33.7)11
HygieneYes1196847 (70.8)349 (29.2)1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)0.183
No282168 (59.6)114 (40.4)11
SocioculturalYes5132 (62.8)19 (37.2)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)0.407
No1427983 (68.9)444 (31.1)11
Circumcision§Not eligible173 (17.7)14 (82.3)11
Circumcised14431003 (69.5)440 (30.5)3.9 (1.4 to 11)2.9 (0.6 to 8.8)0.062
Not circumcised189 (50.0)9 (50.0)2.8 (0.9 to 8.7)2.3 (0.8 to 7.1)0.142
Circumciser§Nurse1418989 (69.8)429 (30.2)1.2 (0.9 to 1.8)1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)0.283
Doctors2514 (56.0)11 (44.0)11
Service delivery point§Static96666 (65.8)900 (34.2)11
Outreach477367 (76.9)110 (23.1)1.2 (1.1 to 1.2)1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)<0.001
Day-2 follow-up§¶Yes1379965 (70.0)414 (30.0)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)
No6438 (59.4)26 (40.6)1
Day-7 follow-up§Yes1025732 (71.4)293 (28.6)1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)0.9 (0.8 to 1.0)0.070
No418271 (64.8)147 (35.2)11
Adverse eventदYes2611 (42.3)15 (57.7)1
No1417992 (70.0)425 (30.0)1.7 (1.1 to 2.6)
  • *Row percentage.

  • †Using generalised linear model (Poisson regression).

  • ‡Mild, moderate and severe were clubbed as ‘Yes’.

  • §Applicable only for those who underwent circumcision.

  • ¶These factors were removed from the final model as they had variance inflation factor of more than 10.

  • ASRH, adolescent sexual reproductive health; MC, male circumcision; RR, relative risk; STI, sexually transmitted infection; VMMC, voluntary medical male circumcision.