Table 4

Acute care and clinical outcomes

Implementation siteComparator site
BaselineYear 1Year 2P valueP valueBaselineYear 1Year 2P valueP value
(n=69)(n=118)(n=124)Y1 vs baselineY2 vs baseline(n=145)(n=168)(n=102)Y1 vs baselineY2 vs baseline
Acute MH admission within 1 year of EIP referral27 (39%)47 (40%)36 (29%)0.1616 (11%)21 (13%)19 (19%)0.20
Time to acute admission
(where applicable) (weeks)
0.0 (0.0 to 10.0)1.0 (0.0 to 7.0)0.0 (0.0 to 3.5)0.880.1115.0 (3.0 to 41.0)11.0 (2.0 to 41.0)13.5 (3.0 to 34.0)0.820.92
Time to acute MH/inpatient screening (hours)
 0–421 (91%)1 (100%)14 (67%)11 (73%)11 (58%)8 (53%)0.49
 4–60 (0%)0 (0%)6 (29%)3 (20%)4 (21%)3 (20%)
 6–81 (4%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)2 (11%)1 (7%)
 8–101 (4%)0 (0%)1 (5%)1 (7%)2 (11%)3 (20%)
Time from acute admission to discharge (where applicable weeks)4.5 (2.0 to 10.3)4.0 (2.0 to 6.8)3.0 (1.0 to 5.3)0.420.563.0 (2.0 to 13.5)3.0 (2.0 to 5.0)3.0 (2.3 to 3.8)0.560.95
Number of subsequent acute admissions
 None18 (64%)41 (85%)25 (71%)0.09114 (67%)15 (65%)13 (62%)0.95
 16 (21%)4 (8%)9 (26%)5 (24%)2 (9%)8 (38%)
 More than 14 (14%)3 (6%)1 (3%)2 (10%)6 (26%)0 (0%)
MHA section within 1 year of EIP referral25 (36%)39 (33%)34 (27%)0.5816 (11%)21 (13%)18 (18%)0.18
Contact acute MH services (post EIP)32 (46%)41 (35%)37 (30%)<0.000125 (17%)30 (18%)22 (22%)<0.0001
Crisis plan completed35 (51%)59 (50%)44 (35%)0.03271 (49%)69 (41%)68 (67%)0.00023
Time to crisis plan completed (weeks)50.0 (15.0 to 79.0)22.5 (10.0 to 37.8)12.5 (6.0 to 22.8)0.0010<0.00018.0 (1.0 to 23.0)11.0 (1.0 to 39.0)12.0 (2.0 to 34.3)0.360.10
A&E attendance within 1 year of EIP referral7 (10%)10 (8%)11 (9%)0.9111 (8%)12 (7%)10 (10%)0.72
Time to A&E attendance (weeks)21.0 (2.5 to 68.3)8.5 (0.0 to 17.0)13.0 (8.0 to 43.0)0.150.8830.0 (25.0 to 41.0)44.0 (11.0 to 76.0)14.5 (7.3 to 31.5)0.870.11
Reason for A&E attendance
 Deterioration in mental state7 (41%)7 (50%)5 (42%)2 (15%)4 (24%)2 (20%)
 Self harm/suicidal ideation/suicide attempt/overdose6 (35%)5 (36%)4 (33%)10 (77%)6 (35%)4 (40%)
 Alcohol/substance abuse1 (6%)1 (7%)2 (17%)0 (0%)1 (6%)0 (0%)
 Medication side effects0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (6%)1 (10%)
 Physical injury/illness (not apparently psychosis related)3 (18%)1 (7%)1 (8%)1 (8%)5 (29%)3 (30%)
General hospital admission within 1 year of EIP referral1 (1%)4 (3%)3 (2%)2 (1%)0 (0%)4 (4%)
Contact with criminal justice system while in EIP pathway15 (22%)34 (29%)4 (3%)<0.000120 (14%)20 (12%)21 (21%)<0.0001
Criminal conviction within 1 year of EIP referral1 (1%)0 (0%)0 (0%)4 (3%)4 (2%)1 (1%)
Deaths within 1 year of EIP referral0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (1%)
  • Proportion of individuals accepted onto the EIP pathway at each trust experiencing acute care outcomes (n (%)) within 1 year of trust referral, and time to reach those outcomes, where applicable (median (IQR)). Excludes EIP to EIP transfers. P values for categorical comparisons from χ2 test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. P values for continuous data from Mann-Whitney U tests.

  • EIP, early intervention in psychosis; MH, mental health; MHA, Mental Health Act.