Table 3

Association of exposures with FEV1

Total number=903No (%, SD)FEV1, mL (95% CI)
Prior exposures
Any wheeze in first year of life416 (46)−16 (−50 to 18)
Family history of asthma510 (56)−23 (−89 to 43)
Attendance at nursery141 (16)−48 (−149 to 53)
Paracetamol in first year of life215 (24)8 (−36 to 51)
Mean birth weight, N, kg (SD) n=9013.32 (0.53)43 (−19 to 104)
Mean birth height, cm (SD)50 (2)11 (5 to 18)
Breast feeding ≥4 months503 (56)18 (−65 to 101)
Age=1 year
Mean log IgE, n=4563.44 (1.39)−19 (−50 to 12)
Mean log eosinophils, n=451−2.14 (1.04)−13 (−56 to 30)
Age=2 years
Helicobacter stool +ve, n=58929 (5)−78 (−270 to 115)
Age=3 years
Mean log CRP, SD, n=614−2.16 (2.71)2 (−9 to 12)
Log dengue IgG, n=545−0.43 (2.00)7 (−10 to 25)
Helicobacter stool +ve, n=77551 (7)−39 (−132 to 54)
Mean log eosinophils, n=652−1.78 (1.26)22 (−5 to 49)
Toxoplasmosis serology +ve, n=606362 (60)48 (−46 to 143)
Mean log IgE, n=6143.68 (1.57)8 (−21 to 37)
Medical diagnosis of dengue infection78 (9)−27 (−59 to 5)
Current exposures
Male sex468 (52)36 (−23 to 96)
Mean age (months), (range)74 (64 –83)4 (−12 to 21)
Wheeze in past 12 months353 (39)−62 (−160 to 35)
Mean weight, kg, n=902 (range)23.5 (11 –51)11 (3 to 18)
Current height, cm, n=903 (range)119 (90 –175)8 (2 to 14)
Mean arm circumference, cm n=90118.4 (2.4)12 (1 to 24)
Number of current smokers in house
0447 (49)0
1261 (29)0 (−20 to 19)
≥2195 (22)−39 (−108 to 30)
Municipality of residence
Arroyo Naranjo371 (41)0
Cerro119 (13)74 (31 to 117)
Habana del Este247 (27)048 (39 to 57)
La Lisa166 (18)95 (−126 to −64)
P<0.001
Current infection and blood assays
Helicobacter stool antigen +ve, n=68510 (1)−10 (−228 to 207)
Toxoplasmosis +ve, n=688437 (64)8 (−49 to 65)
Mean log dengue IgG serology, n=6871.63 (1.56)−5 (−24 to 14)
Log CRP, n=686−0.87 (1.38)−9 (−37 to 20)
Mean log eosinophils, n=785−1.61 (1.47)−5 (−41 to 31)
Mean log IgE, n=6884.52 (0.97)−12 (−87 to 63)
Toxocariasis +ve, n=66757 (9)−15 (−125 to 95)
Any atopy* (n=818)52 (6)−54 (−182 to 74)
adjusted for sex, age in months, current height and clustering by municipality
  • Results in bold font have a probability of <0.05.

  • * Any allergen skin prick test >3 mm larger than saline control.

  • CRP, C-reactive protein; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s.