Table 4

Association of exposures with bronchodilatation after inhaled salbutamol

Total number=903No (%, SD)% change in FEV1 (95% CI)
Prior exposures
Any wheeze in first year of life417 (46)1.94 (0.81 to 3.08)
Family history of asthma510 (56)1.85 (0.14 to 3.57)
Attendance at nursery138 (15)−3.21 (−9.10 to 2.68)
Paracetamol in first year of life213 (24)−0.67 (−4.68 to 3.35)
Mean birth weight, kg (SD) n=9013.32 (0.53)2.67 (−4.49 to −0.84)
Mean birth height, cm50 (2)0.06 (−0.56 to 0.69)
Breast feeding ≥4 months503 (56)0.61 (−2.87 to 4.09)
Age=1 year
Mean log IgE, n=4553.42 (1.39)1.68 (0.54 to 2.82)
Mean log eosinophils, n=449−2.13 (1.04)−0.16 (−2.54 to 2.21)
Age=2 years
Helicobacter stool +ve, n=58628 (5)−6.41 (−14.94 to 2.10)
Age=3 years
Mean log CRP, SD, n=615−2.12 (2.71)−0.28 (−0.88 to 0.32)
Log dengue IgG, n=550−0.43 (2.01)−0.38 (−1.50 to 0.74)
Helicobacter stool +ve, n=77651 (6)−1.40 (−7.30 to 4.51)
Mean log eosinophils, n=653−1.78 (1.26)−0.39 (−4.45 to 3.68)
Toxoplasmosis serology +ve, n=607362 (60)−0.45 (−7.06 to 6.16)
Mean log IgE, n=6153.68 (1.57)0.23 (−1.81 to 2.27)
Medical diagnosis of dengue infection78 (9)−0.58 (−8.55 to 7.38)
Current exposures
Male sex466 (52)2.22 (−0.28 to 4.71)
Age (months), (range)74 (64– 83)−0.13 (−0.47 to 0.20)
Wheeze in past 12 months353 (39)3.61 (−5.80 to 13.02)
Mean current weight, kg, n=893 (range)24 (11 –51)−0.23 (−0.54 to 0.08)
Current height, cm, n=893119 (90– 175)−0.08 (−0.50 to 0.34)
Mean arm circumference, cm, n=89318.4 (2.4)−0.14 (−0.81 to 0.54)
Number of current smokers in house
0446 (49)0
1263 (29)−0.87 (−5.89 to 4.14)
≥2194 (21)2.93 (−3.80 to 9.65)
Municipality of residence
Arroyo Naranjo368 (41)0
Cerro119 (13)1.34 (−2.56 to −0.11)
Habana del Este249 (28)0.07 (−0.46 to 0.31)
La Lisa167 (18)6.24 (5.56 to 6.91)
P=0.002
Current infection and blood assays
Helicobacter stool antigen +ve, n=68410 (1)8.89 (−9.17 to 26.96)
Toxoplasmosis +ve, n=687438 (64)−0.47 (−3.34 to 2.39)
Mean log dengue IgG serology, n=6861.64 (1.56)0.30 (−1.44 to 2.03)
Log CRP, n=685−0.87 (1.40)0.37 (−1.64 to 2.38)
Mean log eosinophils, n=782−161 1.47)0.99 (−0.48 to 2.46)
Mean log IgE, n=6864.52 (0.98)0.64 (−0.18 to 1.45)
Toxocariasis +ve, n=66658 (9)−1.03 (−5.29 to 3.23)
Any atopy* (n=816)52 (6)−2.75 (−10.15 to 4.60)
  • Adjusted for sex, age in months and clustering by municipality.

  • Results in bold font have a probability of <0.05.

  • *Any allergen skin prick test >3 mm larger than saline control.

  • CRP, C-reactive protein; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s.