Table 3

Effects of ICS on yearly exacerbation

PeriodStudyYearly exacerbations (95% CI)Rate ratio*95%
ICSAlternative
0–52 weeksWedzichaCurrent smoker (n=658 to 647)0.830.74 to 0.92
Ex-smoker (n=998 to 1004)0.920.83 to 1.01
0–52 weeksPascoeCurrent smoker (n=1421 to 726)0.990.87 to 1.12
Ex-smoker (n=2704 to 1339)1.21.10 to 1.33
0–52 weeksBhattCurrent smoker (n=7678)19%†7% to 29%
Ex-smoker (n=8807)36%†27% to 43%
0–52 weeksHinds>46 pack years (n=587)1.62 (1.29 to 2.02)1.32 (1.00 to 1.76)0.810.63 to 1.06
≤46 pack years (n=891)0.66 (0.54 to 0.81)0.85 (0.67 to 1.08)1.291.02 to 1.58
  • *Rate ratio of yearly exacerbations: <1 favours the alternative; >1 favours ICS, except Bhatt et al where % reduction in exacerbations versus placebo was reported.

  • †Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol versus placebo, no difference was seen for fluticasone furoate versus placebo or vilanterol versus placebo.

  • ICS, inhaled corticosteroids.