Table 2

Data extraction form (original studies)

Author and yearCountry and fundingPopulation (type of trauma or surgical procedure)Age (mean and SD)Risk factor for chronic opioid use (history of substance abuse, chronic pain, anxiety, depression)Study designSample sizeStrategies (pharmacological, educational, psychological, rehabilitation, alternatives, multimodal, system-based)Context (ICU, trauma or surgical unit, rehabilitation, pain clinic, family medicine clinics)ComparatorMeasure time points (3–6, >6–12, >12 months)Primary outcomes (measures and scores)Secondary outcomes (measures and scores)Efficacy (measure of association, CI, significance value)Risk of bias (low, moderate, high, unclear)
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  • SD, Standard deviation.