Table 3

Multinomial logistic regression analysis of maternal multivitamin intake and the incidence of cleft lip and cleft palate in children (N=98 787)

 No. of events (%) Total orofacial clefts Cleft lip alone Cleft lip with cleft palate Cleft palate alone N=234 n=69 n=113 n=52 Variables Risk ratio (95% CI) Risk ratio (95% CI) Risk ratio (95% CI) Risk ratio (95% CI) Model 1 (crude) Multivitamin intake, reference (no) Ref Before pregnancy confirmation 1.71 (1.06 to 2.77)* 1.96 (0.85 to 4.52) 1.99 (1.04 to 3.82)* 0.82 (0.20 to 3.38) Up to 12 weeks (the first trimester) 2.00 (1.18 to 3.37)* 2.78 (1.20 to 6.41)* 1.35 (0.55 to 3.31) 2.43 (0.88 to 6.74) After 12 weeks 1.34 (0.59 to 3.01) 1.52 (0.56 to 6.19) 0.92 (0.23 to 3.71) 2.03 (0.49 to 8.36) Model 2‡ (adjusted) Multivitamin intake, reference (no) Ref Before pregnancy confirmation 1.73 (1.07 to 2.81)* 1.93 (0.84 to 4.48) 2.04 (1.06 to 3.92)* 0.84 (0.20 to 3.45) Up to 12 weeks (the first trimester) 2.05 (1.21 to 3.46)** 2.80 (1.21 to 6.49)* 1.40 (0.57 to 3.45) 2.47 (0.89 to 6.88) After 12 weeks 1.36 (0.60 to 3.07) 1.50 (0.37 to 6.13) 0.94 (0.23 to 3.83) 2.08 (0.50 to 8.60) Model 3‡ (adjusted) Multivitamin intake, reference (no) Ref Before pregnancy confirmation 1.77 (1.09 to 2.88)* 2.21 (0.95 to 5.16) 2.05 (1.06 to 3.95)* 0.77 (0.19 to 3.19) Up to 12 weeks (the first trimester) 2.11 (1.24 to 3.59)** 3.36 (1.43 to 7.90)** 1.39 (0.56 to 3.45) 2.26 (0.80 to 6.38) After 12 weeks 1.38 (0.61 to 3.13) 1.78 (0.43 to 7.34) 0.93 (0.23 to 3.79) 1.89 (0.45 to 7.86)
• *p<0.05; **p< 0.01.

• ‡Adjusted for the mother's age and body mass index at pregnancy, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pregestational diabetes, retinol intake based on FFQ (food frequency questionnaire) and maternal education.

• §Adjusted for the mother's age and body mass index at pregnancy, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pregestational diabetes, retinol intake based on FFQ, maternal education, folic acid intake during pregnancy, and antirheumatic or antiepileptic or psychotropic drug intake during pregnancy.