Table 5

Zero-inflated Poisson regression results for the association between frailty status and instrumental activities of daily living limitations (model 7)

CovariateLogistic section
OR (95% CI)*
Poisson section
RR (95% CI)†
Frailty
Robust1.001.00
Prefrailty0.32 (0.06 to 1.84)1.21 (0.67 to 2.16)
Frailty0.11 (0.02 to 0.59)4.16 (2.27 to 7.60)
Sex
Male1.001.00
Female6.17 (1.31 to 29.40)1.02 (0.69 to 1.50)
Age group (years)
60–641.001.00
65–691.88 (0.23 to 15.80)1.88 (0.71 to 4.96)
70–740.62 (0.08 to 4.85)2.22 (0.78 to 6.32)
75–790.24 (0.02 to 2.66)2.26 (0.91 to 5.60)
≥800.05 (0.00 to 0.79)3.44 (1.31 to 9.02)
Longest-held occupation
Never-employed/skill level 11.001.00
Skill level 24.34 (0.89 to 21.33)1.04 (0.69 to 1.57)
Skill level 3 or 46.42 (1.34 to 30.57)1.37 (0.97 to 1.93)
Social support
Poor/Moderate1.001.00
Strong5.81 (0.45 to 74.44)1.38 (1.08 to 1.78)
Multimorbidity
None or 11.001.00
≥21.49 (0.45 to 4.95)1.37 (1.03 to 1.83)
Self-perceived vision
Poor/fair1.001.00
Good/very good/excellent3.03 (0.61 to 15.49)1.11 (0.76 to 1.63)
Self-perceived hearing
Poor/fair1.001.00
Good/very good/excellent0.76 (0.16 to 3.71)0.88 (0.71 to 1.10)
  • The reference category is 1.00. Statistically significant estimates (at the 5% level) are displayed in bold.

  • *Logistic section of the regression model estimates the log-odds of belonging to the ‘sure-zero’/‘not-at-risk’ class.

  • †Poisson section of the regression model estimates the count of IADL limitations for those estimated to belong to the ‘non-sure zero’/‘at risk’ latent class.

  • OR, odds ratio; RR, rate ratio.