Table 1

Characteristics of mothers-infants (n=1486)

CharacteristicSummary statistic*
Maternal age (years)23.5±4.5
Maternal education (years)6.5±3.0
 07.6% (76/1003)
 140.3% (404/1003)
 224.6% (247/1003)
 315.4% (154/1003)
 4+12.2% (122/1003)
Maternal height (cm)149.7±5.2
Maternal weight at baseline visit (kg)44.9±7.5
Maternal MUAC (cm)22.9±2.4
Betel nut chewing status
Never61.7% (915/1483)
Quit pre-pregnancy0.3% (4/1483)
Currently sniffing/chewing38.0% (564/1483)
Gestational age at delivery (weeks)40.0±0.1
Preterm birth (<37 weeks GA)9.2% (137/1486)
Birth weight at newborn exam (gm)2721±469
Small for gestational age†23.4% (279/1194)
  • *Reported as mean±SD or % (n/N).

  • †SGA defined as <10 percentile birth weight for gestational age and sex, as classified by INTERGROWTH-21st neonatal standard.32

  • GA, gestational age; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference; SGA, small for gestational age.