Table 4

Factors associated with non-referral for VMMC services among counselled young people in Bulawayo and Mount Darwin, Zimbabwe (October–December 2018)

Sociodemographic characteristicsTotal counselledNot referred for VMMCUnadjustedAdjusted
n(%)RR(95% CI)aRR(95% CI)
Total2207920(100)
Age (years)
 10–14944287(30.4)RefRef
 15–19795362(45.5)1.50(1.28–1.74)1.59(1.34–1.87)
 20–24468271(57.9)1.90(1.61–2.25)1.83(1.49–2.26)
Marital status
 Single2179904(41.5)RefRef
 Married2715(55.6)1.34(0.80–2.23)1.31(0.78–2.22)
 Divorced or separated11(100)2.41(0.34–17.1)2.46(0.34–1.77)
School status
 In-school1613604(37.4)RefRef
 Out of school594316(53.2)1.42(1.24–1.63)1.09(0.92–1.30)
Counselling session
 Individual427206(48.2)RefRef
 Group1780714(40.1)0.83(0.71–0.97)0.86(0.73–1.01)
Type of setting
 Bulawayo (urban)1392644(46.3)RefRef
 Mount Darwin (rural)815276(33.9)0.73(0.640.84)0.61(0.52–0.71)
Age of peer educator (years)*
 15–19507217(42.8)RefRef
 20–241700703(41.4)0.97(0.83–1.13)0.92(0.78–1.08)
Sex of peer educator†
 Male1159440(38.0)0.83(0.73–0.94)0.77(0.67–0.80)
 Female1048480(45.8)RefRef
  • In bold: statistically significant at p<0.05.

  • *Refers to the number of clients who were counselled by peer educators aged 15–19 and 20–24 years.

  • †Refers to the number of clients who were counselled by male and female peer educators.

  • aRR, adjusted relative risk; Ref, reference; RR, relative risk; VMMC, voluntary medical male circumcision.