Table 1

Characteristics of included studies, setting, device, tests performed, patient characteristics and sample size

StudySettingDevice (manufacturer)Tests performedParticipant characteristicsSample size
Parvin et al27*ED USAi-STAT (i-STAT Corp, Princeton, NJ)Sodium, potassium, chloride, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, haematocrit, haemoglobinPatients presenting to the ED between Dec 1994 and Jan 1995 (control period 1), Feb and April 1995 (intervention period) and April 1995 (control period 2) and who had blood tests done that were available on the i-STAT. Only 5.3% of patients had no other central laboratory testing performed in addition to i-STAT2067
Kendall et al22ED
i-STAT (Abbott)
two cartridges evaluated
Sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV), calculates Hb from PCV pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (ppCO2), partial pressure oxygen (ppO2), bicarbonate, total CO2, base excess, oxygen saturationRepresentative sample of adult ED patients who needed blood tests.
No exclusion criteria.
Murray et al25ED
Spectral Cardiac STATus Test Kit (Nova Biomedical)
Creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, total CO2, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, haematocrit, qualitative creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and myoglobinAdult ED patients, all patients seen in ED randomised but only those patients whose blood work fell entirely within capabilities of POCT were selected.180
Hsiao et al19Tertiary paediatric ED
i-STAT (Abbott)Sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, ionised calcium, haematocrit, basic blood gas analysisPaediatric ED patients aged under 21 years old whose blood work fell entirely within capabilities of POCT. Critically ill patients excluded.239
Lee et al23Multicentre: 5 EDs
South Korea
Piccolo xpress (Abbott)
Piccolo Metabolic Reagent Discs
Protein, albumin, alk phos, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, nitrogen, calcium, cr, glucose, potassium, sodium, bilirubin, total CO2ED patients aged 15 years and older clinically required to have chemistry laboratory tests.2323
Illahi et al26ED
Xpand Plus analyser
XS 1000 analyser (Sysmex)
Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Amylase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Creatinine, CRP, glucose, paracetamol, phosphate, potassium, sodium, urea, FBC, WBC and differentialAdult ED patients. Some samples then underwent further testing in the central laboratory if required tests were not available from POCT device.47
Jang et al24ED
Piccolo xpress (Abbott)
Piccolo metabolic reagent discs
Total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, nitrogen, calcium, chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin and total carbon dioxideED patients aged 15 years and older whose physicians ordered a comprehensive metabolic panel.
Critically ill patients excluded.
10 244
Goodacre21Multicentre 6 EDs UKStratus CS (Siemens) cardiac analyser panelCK, myocardial type, myoglobin, troponin 1Adult ED patients with chest pain. Several exclusion criteria applied including patients with ECG changes consistent with myocardial infarction/high risk acute coronary syndrome, confirmed or suspected serious non-coronary pathology.2243
Ezekowitz et al20Ambulance service
(Out of hospital)
Cardio2 panel (Alere)Troponin and B-type natriuretic peptideAdults>18 years of age who activated emergency medical services for acute chest discomfort or dyspnoea for which acute cardiovascular disease was deemed to be the most probable diagnosis. Patients excluded if ST-elevation on ECG and non-cardiovascular cause suspected / recurrent dyspnoea.491
  • *All studies were RCTs except from Parvin 1996(26) which was a before-after study design.

  • †Assessed cardiac panels.

  • ED, emergency department; POCT, point-of-care panel testing.