Table 4

Bivariate associations between scale scores and hypothesised correlates

Material and home environmentTransport and school environmentMaterial reliability concernsChange and disposal insecurityTotal
r (p value)r (p value)r (p value)r (p value)r (p value)
DASS-21 total score* (n=518)0.04
(0.333)
0.16
(<0.001)
−0.27
(<0.001)
−0.26
(<0.001)
−0.11
(0.013)
%OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Felt confident to manage menstruation at home†80.922.87
(1.99 to 4.15)
1.25
(0.94 to 1.67)
1.09
(0.81 to 1.47)
0.92
(0.64 to 1.31)
4.09
(2.14 to 7.81)
Felt confident to manage menstruation at school51.721.97
(1.47 to 2.63)
1.94
(1.53 to 2.45)
1.14
(0.90 to 1.44)
1.05
(0.80 to 1.39)
4.22
(2.52 to 7.06)
Does not usually miss school during menstruation61.901.48
(1.11 to 1.97)
1.14
(0.91 to 1.43)
1.28
(1.00 to 1.63)
1.33
(1.00 to 1.77)
2.52
(1.52 to 4.17)
Did not miss school during last menstrual period69.251.11
(0.82 to 1.50)
0.99
(0.78 to 1.26)
1.54
(1.19 to 2.00)
2.10
(1.51 to 2.91)
2.62
(1.52 to 4.50)
  • *DASS score ranges from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating greater negative emotional state (combined anxiety and depression items). DASS scores exhibited acceptable normality for parametric testing (see online supplementary material 1).

  • †Not confident=1.00.

  • DASS-21, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21.