Table 3

Postoperative delirium and opioid doses

TMH group
TN group
 Number of patients0 (0.0)2 (10.0)
 Mean midazolam dose (mg)01.75
Intraoperative opioid
 Total dose (mg)21.67 (13.75–32.50)16.67 (10.00–22.50)(p=0.22)
 Received intravenous morphine2 (10.0)1 (5.0)
 Received intravenous fentanyl10 (50.0)14 (70.0)
 Received intravenous oxycodone9 (45.0)7 (35.0)
 Received intravenous tramadol4 (20.0)0 (0.0)
 Received intravenous clonidine0 (0.0)2 (10.0)
Intrathecal morphine
 Number of patients52
 Mean dose (μg)220350
Epidural analgesia
 Number of patients00
Blood glucose level
 Glucose (mmol/L)7.1 (7.0–7.1)6.6 (6.4 to 6.7)(p=0.33)
Preoperative CAM0 (0.0–0.0)0 (0.0–0.0)
Postoperative CAM0 (0.0–0.0)1.5 (0.0–3.0)
Presence of postoperative delirium0 (0.0)6 (30.0)(p=0.02)
  • Data reported as median (IQR) or number (%).

  • Note some patients received two or more different intraoperative opioids.

  • Total dose of intraoperative opioid normalised to intravenous morphine equivalent.

  • CAM, Confusion Assessment Method; TMH, targeted mild hypercapnia; TN, targeted normocapnia.