Table 4

Linear mixed effects models of QS scores in leaders and professors from 2012/2013 to 2016/2017

QS overall scores†
Model 1Model 2
β95% CIβ95% CI
Fixed effect
 Intercept‡63.55***(32.19 to 94.91)61.03***(30.34 to 91.72)
 Athena award (Ref Bronze)
  Silver11.80*(0.01 to 23.59)16.13**(3.73 to 28.53)
 Year (centred)−0.085(−0.40 to 0.23)0.13(−0.24 to 0.50)
 Year*Athena award (Ref Year*Bronze)
  Year*Silver−0.77*(−1.45 to −0.08)
 Duration of award§−1.24(−7.53 to 5.06)−1.23(−7.52 to 5.06)
Random effect¶
 Intercept variance559.04***361.96***
 Year variance−6.537−6.445
 Residual variance11.504***11.21***
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Only conducted among Bronze and Silver awardees.

  • ‡Intercept coefficient estimates of the mean initial QS score among Bronze awardees.

  • §Duration of being awarded Bronze or Silver during the study period (2012/2013–2016/2017).

  • ¶Intercept variance indicates the between-group variances across higher education institutions (HEI); year invariance indicates the structured variance across years; residual variance indicates the variability of individual HEI’s female representation around the individual regression lines for each subject.

  • AIC, Akaike information criteria; BIC, Bayesian information criteria; QS, Quacquarelli Symonds.