Table 1

Summary of included interventions

Falls prevention and balance interventionsOther intervention typesMixed
Campbell 33 Cheung29 Kingston 37 Kovács30 Surakka35 Surakka36 Waterman34 Ackley-Holbrook31 Chen39 Gleeson25 26 Jeter41 Jeter42 Larsson43 Miszko40 Ponchillia27 Salari28 Hackney32
Study designRCTRCTPPRCTPPRCTRCTPPRCTRCTPPRCTPPPPPPPPRCT
Sample size3915024412729492140120102181033032
Mean age (years)8483806954568148867546555253312279
Basis of PA interventionOtagoBalance +strengthMatter of balanceOtagoBalanceBalanceOtagoWalkingTai chiAlexander techniqueYogaYogaDanceTai chiAerobicsCore stabilityExp.=Dance
Ctrl=FallProof
Delivery mode*Self-directedGroupGroupGroupGroup or mixedGroupSelf-directedSelf-directedGroupGroupMixedMixedGroupMixedGroupGroup
Duration1 year12 weeks4 weeks6 months5–6 weeks5–6 weeks6 months8 weeks16 weeks12 weeks8 weeks8 weeks8 weeks8 weeks7 weeks8 weeks10–12 weeks
Compliance18%100%95%Mean number of sessions=13.5Equivocal94%100%82% Sessions
90% home practice
25/32 Completed all sessions
Retention92%100%100%100%89%100%88%81%62%93%70%81%88%80%100%78%
Adverse outcomesn=1 Moderate injuryNonen=22 FallsNonen=2 Fallsn=2 Deaths, n=1 hospitalisationNoneNone
Results†
Falls and balanceMixed+NT0DANT0NT++ (postural sway)DA+~ +DANT++
Functional capacityNT+DA+NT+NT++0NT+~ +DA~ +NT+
Psychological .
well-being
NTNTNTNTDANT0NTNT0DANTNTDANTNT0
  • ‘–’ represents not reported.

  • *Mixed=self-directed sessions in combination with regular group classes or face-to-face session; Group=group class-based only.

  • †+=statistically significant result in favour of intervention, 0=no statistically significant change, ~+=analysis at individual level showing significant change.

  • Ctrl, control; DA, descriptive analysis only; Exp, experimental; NT, not tested; PA, physical activity; PP, pre–post; RCT, randomised controlled trial.