Table 2

Study design, aim and outcome of the included studies, and the country the study was conducted in, the occupational group in focus and the mode of delivery

AuthorStudy designCountryMain aim of studyTarget groupMethod of deliveryData collection periodOutcome
Farrokhnia et al 36 Prospective cohort study—single armIranEvaluate the effect of education related to good body posture and stretching exercises on musculoskeletal painDentistsEducational pamphletsMeasurements conducted at baseline and 2 months after interventionA significant reduction in musculoskeletal pain in neck, right shoulder, left shoulder, upper back and right wrist following the educational intervention
Korshøj et al 31 Randomised controlled trialDenmarkEvaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on musculoskeletal pain at 4 and 12 months of follow-up. The aerobic exercise group was compared with a health promotion group receiving lecturesCleanersFive 2-hour-long lectures (control arm)Measurements conducted at baseline, at 4 months and 12 months of follow-up after interventionClinically significant reductions in pain intensity for neck, shoulders, arms/wrists in the aerobic exercise group, compared with the education group
A reduction in low back pain within the health promotion group evident at 12-month follow-up
Rantonen et al 41 Prospective quasi-experimental studyFinlandTo assess cost-effectiveness of a patient information booklet for employees in forestry company reporting mild low back pain Employees in a forestry companyBooklet or booklet+a face-to-face review of the bookletMeasurements conducted at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-upCombination of booklet information and face-to-face advice reduced the costs of healthcare (87% probability), but the additive effect (compared with booklet alone) was negligible
Ratzon et al 34 An assigned randomised controlled trialIsraelTo examine the effect of a personalised ergonomic intervention, focusing on body posture during common work tasks, as compared with a control group receiving instruction sheets and explanations of principles of proper work performance, for hospital nurses with musculoskeletal painNurses working in a hospital settingAn instruction sheet
(control group)
Measurements conducted at baseline with follow-up after 6 monthsNo significant differences were found in the level of pain or number of painful body regions or in the level between the intervention and control group that only got information/education in writing (no practical exercise/instructions)
Hutting et al 30 A randomised controlled trialThe NetherlandsTo evaluate the effectiveness of a self-management intervention (including an eHealth module), compared with usual care, in employees with chronic, non-specific complaints of the arm, neck or shoulderUniversity and general populationGroup sessions6 supplemented by an eHealth module (available for 12 months)Measurements at baseline, at 3, 6 and 12 monthsNo significant between-group differences were found on most outcome measures, although the self-management intervention improved the participants’ perceived disability during work
  • The articles are presented in chronological order.