Table 2

Linear mixed effects models of female representation in leaders and professors from 2012/2013 to 2016/2017

Among Athena Charter membersAmong all HEIs†
Leaders95% CIProfessors95% CILeaders95% CIProfessors95% CI
Fixed effect
 Intercept‡0.32***(0.25 to 0.38)0.20***(0.15 to 0.25)0.28***(0.22 to 0.34)0.22***(0.15 to 0.29)
 Athena award
  Non-recipients(Ref)(Ref)0.050* (0.012 to 0.095)−0.005(−0.077 to 0.067)
  Bronze−0.062* (−0.12 to −0.002)−0.040(−0.11 to 0.032)−0.009(−0.065 to 0.047)−0.048(−0.134 to 0.038)
  Silver−0.112**(−0.189 to −0.035)−0.083(−0.17 to 0.007)−0.057(−0.132 to 0.018)−0.089(−0.194 to 0.016)
 Year0.009***(0.006 to 0.013)0.006***(0.004 to 0.009)0.008***(0.005 to 0.012)0.006***(0.003 to 0.008)
 Duration of award§−0.007(−0.018 to 0.005)−0.002(−0.016 to 0.012)−0.007(−0.019 to 0.005)−0.002(−0.017 to 0.014)
Random effect¶
 Intercept variance0.059***0.036***0.076***0.043***
 Year variance−0.0037***−0.002***−0.005***−0.002***
 Residual variance0.001***0.0004***0.0011***0.0004***
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †All high-education institutes in the study, including non-Athena Charter members, non-recipient of Athena awards, and Bronze and Silver awardees.

  • ‡Intercept coefficient estimates the mean initial percentages of female leaders or professors among the non-recipients (in the model among Athena Charter members) and non-Athena HEIs (in the model among all HEIs).

  • §Duration of being awarded Bronze or Silver during the study period (2012/2013–2016/2017).

  • ¶Intercept variance indicates the between-group variances across HEIs; year invariance indicates the structured variance across years; residual variance indicates the variability of individual HEI’s female representation around the individual regression lines for each subject.

  • AIC, Akaike information criteria; BIC, Bayesian information criteria; HEI, higher education institution.