Table 3

Linear mixed effects models of female representation in leaders and professors from 2012/2013 to 2016/2017

Among Athena Charter membersAmong All HEIs†
Leaders95% CIProfessors95% CILeaders95% CIProfessors95% CI
Fixed effect
 Intercept‡0.45***(0.42 to 0.49)0.30***(0.26 to 0.34)0.40***(0.38 to 0.43)0.31***(0.25 to 0.36)
 Athena award
  Non-recipients(Ref)(Ref)0.05*(0.01 to 0.093)−0.01(−0.08 to −0.066)
  Bronze−0.06*(−0.12 to −0.002)−0.04(−0.11 to 0.032)−0.01(−0.07 to 0.046)−0.05(−0.13 to 0.038)
  Silver−0.11**(−0.19 to −0.03)−0.08(−0.17 to 0.0073)−0.06(−0.13 to 0.02)−0.09(−0.20 to 0.014)
 Year (centred)0.011*(0.0025 to 0.020)0.0070(−0.0008 to 0.015)0.0039(−0.0035 to 0.0112)−0.005(−0.017 to 0.0071)
 Year*Athena award
  Year*Non-recipient(Ref)(Ref)0.008(−0.0045 to 0.020)0.012(−0.003 to 0.026)
  Year*Bronze−0.0034(−0.013 to 0.0065)−0.0013(−0.0096 to 0.0069)0.0042(−0.0044 to 0.013)0.011(−0.0018 to 0.023)
  Year*Silver0.0016(−0.012 to 0.015)0.0022(−0.0083 to 0.013)0.0093(−0.0042 to 0.023)0.014*(0.0001 to 0.023)
 Duration of award§−0.0067(−0.018 to 0.0051)−0.0018(−0.016 to 0.012)−0.0067(−0.019 to 0.0053)−0.0016(−0.017 to 0.014)
Random effect¶
 Intercept variance0.005***0.006***0.005***0.008***
 Year variance0.00010.0001−0.0001−0.00003
 Residual variance0.001***0.0004***0.001***0.0004***
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; *** p<0.001.

  • †All high-education institutes in the study, including non-Athena Charter members, non-recipient of Athena awards, and Bronze and Silver awardees.

  • ‡Intercept coefficient estimates the mean initial percentages of female leaders or professors among the non-recipients (in the model among Athena Charter members) and non-Athena HEIs (in the model among all HEIs).

  • §Duration of being awarded Bronze or Silver during the study period (2012/2013–2016/2017).

  • ¶Intercept variance indicates the between-group variances across HEIs; year invariance indicates the structured variance across years; residual variance indicates the variability of individual HEI’s female representation around the individual regression lines for each subject.

  • AIC, Akaike information criteria; BIC, Bayesian information criteria; HEI, higher education institution.