Table 1

Trends of female representation and QS overall scores from 2012/2013 to 2016/2017†

YearFemale representationQS overall scores‡
Leaders (%)nAllProfessors (%)nAll HEIsBronzeSilverTest statistics
nAllBronzeSilverNon-recipientNon-AthenaBronzeSilverNon-recipientNon-AthenaMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
2012/201313637.235.528.743.541.210024.224.318.926.631.44757.8 (20.9)53.0 (18.9)70.1 (21.5) t (45)=−2.67* , d=−0.87
2013/201413637.235.029.944.341.510624.624.419.526.432.24660.2 (21.2)55.4 (19.6)72.5 (20.7) t (44)=−2.63*, d=−0.86
2014/201513738.036.830.344.540.510325.324.920.828.036.74761.3 (21.0)56.6 (19.4)73.6 (20.6) t (45)=−2.65*, d=−0.86
2015/201613538.737.233.446.740.110226.125.321.932.933.94663.2 (18.7)59.6 (17.2)72.3 (20.1) t (44)=−2.16*, d=−0.71
2016/201713339.537.934.147.441.210326.826.422.331.932.14656.9 (20.0)52.9 (17.8)67.3 (22.1) t (45)=−2.26*, d=−0.74
Rate growth§8.49.020.311.12.47.65.714.317.51.11.63.1−1.9
  • T-test was used to compare mean differences between Bronze and Silver awardees.

  • *p<0.05.

  • †Rates based on the availability of data in each year.

  • ‡Analysis based on institutions with Bronze or Silver awards during the study periods.

  • §Methods of calculating the rate growth can be found in the Methods section.

  • d, Cohen's d; HEI, higher education institution; QS, Quacquarelli Symonds.