Table 3

Analysis of related factors with DR, adjusted for age, BMI and smoking status

FactorsBSEWald χ2 P valueOR95% CI
Sex0.0990.2280.1900.6631.1040.707 to 1.726
Hypertension0.2520.1752.0800.1491.2870.914 to 1.812
Drinking history0.1310.2220.3510.5541.1400.739 to 1.761
HbA1c0.0060.0380.0220.8821.0060.934 to 1.083
BMI (≥28 vs <28 kg/m2)−0.5240.1838.2300.0040.5920.414 to 0.847
Family history of DM−0.1620.1730.8770.3490.8500.606 to 1.194
Age of DM diagnosis (years)6.1260.047
 50–60−0.0920.2160.1830.6690.9120.597 to 1.393
 ≥60−0.5180.2295.1240.0240.5960.381 to 0.933
Smoking status4.6580.097
 Light and moderate smoking0.0970.252−0.1490.7001.1020.673 to 1.806
 Heavy smoking0.5090.2514.1040.0431.6641.017 to 2.724
  • BMI, body mass index; DM, diabetes mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c.