Table 1

Description of the PICOTS strategy as applied to this study

PopulationAge ≥18 years
Diagnoses: urological neoplasia in adults:
  • Localised prostate cancer

  • Renal mass

  • Invasive bladder cancer

  • Testicular cancer

  • RP (open vs robotic approach)

  • RC (open vs robotic approach)

  • PN (open vs robotic approach)

  • RN (open vs robotic approach)

  • RPLND (open vs robotic approach)

ComparatorsComparison between open and robotic approaches in the treatment of urological cancers included in the list above
OutcomesPerioperative outcomes:
  • Operative time (min)

  • Estimated blood loss (mL)

  • Length of hospital stay (days)

  • Blood transfusion rate (%)

  • Overall complication rate (%)

  • Major and minor postoperative complication rate (%)

  • Early and late complication rate (%)

  • Readmission rate (%)

Oncological outcomes:
  • Positive margins

  • Lymph node counts

  • Cancer-specific survival

  • Overall survival

  • Recurrence-free survival

Functional outcomes:
  • Potency recovery rate (n)

  • Continence recovery rate (n)

  • Health-related quality-of-life

  • Renal function (eGFR change)

Hospital costs:
  • Operative costs

  • Non-operative costs

Type of studiesAll available clinical, prospective randomised and non-randomised trials and retrospective comparative studies (cohort or case–control series) comparing RRP versus ORP, RRC versus ORC, RPN versus OPN, RRN versus ORN and RRPLND versus ORPLND were included. Published between 2000 and 2020.
Timing and settingAny time point and setting
  • eGFR, estimated glomerular rate; OPN, open partial nephrectomy; ORC, open radical cystectomy; ORN, open radical nephrectomy; ORP, open radical prostatectomy; ORPLND, open retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; PN, partial nephrectomy; RC, radical cystectomy; RN, radical nephrectomy; RP, radical prostatectomy; RPLND, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; RPN, robotic partial nephrectomy; RRC, robotic radical cystectomy; RRN, robotic radical nephrectomy; RRP, robotic radical prostatectomy; RRPLND, robotic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.