Table 2

Delphi items to reach consensus as very important or strongly supported

Delphi itemsRound when consensus was reachedn (%)
1. How important is it to develop a consensus definition for predatory journals?131 (94)
2. Characteristics that differentiate predatory and legitimate journals
 2a. The journal’s operations are deceptive (ie, misleading; not truthful).133 (94)
 2b. The journal’s operations are not in keeping with best publication practices (eg, no membership in COPE*).128 (80)
 2c. Journal has low transparency regarding its operations.128 (80)
 2d. Fake impact factors are promoted by the journal.133 (94)
3. Markers that best differentiate predatory and legitimate journals
 3a. The journal has no retraction policy.336 (95)
 3b. The journal solicits manuscripts through aggressive or persuasive emails.132 (91)
 3c. The contact details of the publisher are not easily verifiable.134 (97)
4. Empirically derived data that best differentiate predatory and legitimate journals
 4a. The journal does not mention a Creative Commons licence.128 (80)
 4b. The journal’s home page has a ‘look and feel’ of being unprofessional.130 (86)
 4c. Editors and editorial board affiliations with the journal are not verifiable.135 (100)
 4d. The journal is not a member of COPE.128 (80)
5. Should public funders fund research about predatory publishing?128 (80)
6. Several groups have developed checklists to help authors identify and avoid predatory publishers. Should a single, coherent checklist be developed to replace existing checklists?225 (83)
7. Is there merit in developing resources or educational materials regarding predatory journals/publishers in languages other than English?326 (87)
8. Should efforts be made to differentiate predatory journals from very low-quality journals?130 (86)
9. Is there merit in developing a ‘one stop shop’ website to consolidate information, training and educational materials about predatory journals?128 (80)
10. Is there merit in establishing a predatory journal research observatory?224 (80)
  • *Committee on Publication Ethics