Table 4

Reported perceptions of menstruation, menstrual management, pain and pain management among girls, by age at baseline

Age <16 yearsAge >16 years
Baseline (n=115)Endline (n=51)APR (95% CI)
APD (95% CI)
Baseline (n=107)Endline (n=132)APR (95% CI)
APD (95% CI)
8 of 9 positive perceptions of menstruation*14 (12.2%)16 (31.4%)2.76 (1.10 to 25.19)
21.0% (7.2% to 34.9%)
p=0.001
13 (12.2%)35 (26.5%)2.23 (1.26 to 3.95)
14.6% (5.2% to 24.1%)
p<0.001
Used manufactured menstrual materials only at LMP86 (74.8%)46 (90.2%)1.21 (1.06 to 1.39)
15.7% (4.6% to 26.8%)
p=0.006
76 (71.0%)117 (88.6%)1.25 (1.10 to 1.42)
17.6% (8.0% to 27.2%)
p<0.001
Leaked blood at LMP37 (50.0%)12 (42.9%)0.84 (0.54 to 1.30)
−8.2% (−27.5% to 11.1%)
p=0.41
37 (45.1%)24 (32.4%)0.73 (0.49 to 1.09)
−12.1% (−27.1% to 2.8%)
p=0.11
Underwear stained at LMP31 (27.0%)16 (31.4%)1.07 (0.67 to 1.71)
18.4% (−11.5% to 15.1%)
p=0.79
21 (19.6%)34 (25.8%)1.28 (0.82 to 1.99)
5.6% (−4.3% to 15.5%)
p=0.27
Knew >4 effective pain management methods30 (24.2%)37 (67.3%)2.72 (1.93 to 3.84)
41.8% (27.9% to 55.7%)
p<0.001
30 (27.8%)97 (72.9%)2.60 (1.93 to 3.51)
44.5% (34.3% to 54.7%)
p<0.001
Reported pain at last period79 (68.7%)36 (70.6%)1.00 (0.82 to 1.22)
−0.01% (13.6% to 13.4%)
p=0.99
86 (80.4%)94 (71.2%)0.89 (0.78 to 1.01)
−9.1% (−19.1 to 0.9%)
p=0.08
Used >1 effective pain management method†57 (72.2%)34 (94.4%)1.31 (1.12 to 1.54)
22.5% (10.2% to 34.9%)
p<0.001
69 (80.2%)85 (90.4%)1.13 (1.00 to 1.27)
10.0% (2.9% to 19.9%)
p=0.05
Used painkillers at LMP‡32 (40.5%)21 (58.3%)1.45 (0.99 to 2.12)
18.2% (−1.6% to 37.5%)
p=0.06
45 (52.3%)58 (61.7%)1.16 (0.92 to 1.46)
8.3% (−4.5% to 21.1%)
p=0.21
Used other effective methods‡39 (49.4%)29 (80.6%)1.63 (1.24 to 2.15)
31.1% (14.0% to 48.1%)
p<0.001
43 (50.0%)72 (76.6%)1.55 (1.25 to 1.92)
27.3% (15.2% to 39.4%)
p<0.001
Did nothing for pain at LMP†20 (25.3%)2 (5.6%)0.22 (0.05 to 0.89)
−19.7% (−31.9% to −7.5%)
p<0.001
17 (19.8%)7 (7.5%)0.36 (0.17 to 0.78)
−12.8% (−21.8% to 3.7%)
p<0.001
  • *Perception questions were (1) I prefer staying at home during my period rather than going to school; (2) I worry about being teased during my period; (3) During my period I feel less self-confident than during other days; (4) During my period I avoid physical activity (eg, walking, running); (5) I feel anxious about having my next period; (6) Boys tease me about my period; (7) Girls tease me about my period; (8) I feel comfortable to talk to other girls at school about my period; (9) If I had a problem with managing my period, I would talk to another girl about it.

  • †Effective methods (painkiller, drinking water, using hot water bottle, exercise, relaxing, foods with lots of water).

  • ‡Among those with pain at LMP.

  • APD, adjusted prevalence difference; APR, adjusted prevalence ratio; LMP, last menstrual period.