Table 1

Summary information about measurement items

DescriptionScaleNo of itemsDomain/ dimension/attributeScalingScores to be used in this studyMeasurement property
Physical activity levelGPAQ23 16 itemsDomains
  1. Activity at work

  2. Travel to and from places

  3. Recreational activities

  4. Sedentary activity

  1. Yes/no question about exercising

  2. Free response about time spent exercising

  1. Percentage of respondents not meeting guideline recommendation on physical activity

  2. Mean or median physical activity using MET-mins per week

  3. Time spent in sedentary activities on average per day (mins)

Agreement between GPAQ and accelerometer was moderate for MVPA mins/day (r=0.48) and poor for SB (r=0.19).24
Correlations of total questionnaire scores against accelerometer measures were inconsistent (r=−0.02–0.49) for women.26
HRQOLEQ-5D-5L29 30 6 itemsDimensions
  1. Mobility 2. Self-care 3. Usual activity

  2. Pain/discomfort

  3. Anxiety/depression

  1. 5-point Likert scale of perceived problem

  2. VAS

  1. Index value converted from EQ-5D-5L descriptive system

  2. EQ-VAS score (0–100)

EQ-5D-5L is a valid extension of the 3-level system and improves on the measurement properties, reducing the ceiling, improving discriminatory power and establishing convergent and known-groups validity.31
Lost work productivity:
absenteeism and presenteeism
WHO-HPQ33 8 itemsDomains
  1. Absenteeism

  2. Presenteeism

  1. Semantic differential scale (0–10)

  2. Free response about time

  1. Combining relative absenteeism and presenteeism

  2. Absolute absenteeism/relative absenteeism

  3. Absolute presenteeism/relative presenteeism

Comparing WHO-HPQ self-reported presenteeism with independent employer records of job performance showed statistically significant monotonic associations across a range of occupations. Data are presented on the accuracy of WHO-HPQ measures, showing that WHO-HPQ has excellent reliability, validity and sensitivity to change.34
Cancer-related fatigueCFS36 15 itemsDomains
  1. Physical fatigue

  2. Affective fatigue

  3. Cognitive fatigue

5-point Likert scale (1–5)
  1. Total score (0–60)

  2. Scores of each domain

Construct validity, confirmed by repeating factor analysis, was good. Convergent validity, confirmed by a correlation between CFS and a VAS for fatigue, was also good (r=0.67, p<0.001). The CFS had good stability (average test–retest reliability r=0.69, p<0.001) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α for all 15 items was 0.88).36
Fear of cancer recurrenceOverall fear subscale of CARS-J38 4 itemsN.A.Semantic differential scale (1–6)Total score (4–24)Correlation between CARS-J and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was 0.39–0.60. Cronbach's α was 0.86–0.94.38
InsomniaAIS-J40 8 itemsDomains
  1. Nocturnal sleep problems

  2. Daytime dysfunction

4-point Likert scale (0–3)
  1. Total score (0–24)

  2. Percentage of respondents whose total score was 6 points or higher

Cronbach's α was 0.78–0.88. Correlations between the AIS‐J and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index were 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. Scores on the AIS‐J were significantly higher for the insomnia group than for the control group.40
Symptoms related to cancer treatmentsPRO-CTCAE-J43 44
Pain in joints (elbows, knees, shoulders)Pain in joints (elbows, knees, shoulders)3 itemsAttributes
  1. Frequency

  2. Severity

  3. Interference

5-point Likert scale (0–4)Presented descriptivelyMean (SD) ICC of overall reproducibility for the Japanese PRO-CTCAE was 0.63 (0.02). Correlation coefficient for the corresponding items in the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the Japanese PRO-CTCAE was high (Pearson r=0.56–0.76). Responsiveness analysis revealed significant dose–response trends (Jonckheere-Terpstra test, p<0.001).43
Numbness in limbsNumbness in limbs3 itemsAttributes
  1. Frequency

  2. Severity

  3. Interference

5-point Likert scale (0–4)Presented descriptively
Swelling of armsSwelling of arms2 itemsAttributes
  1. Severity

  2. Interference

5-point Likert scale (0–4)Presented descriptively
Feeling depressed no matter whatFeeling depressed no matter what3 itemsAttributes
  1. Frequency

  2. Severity

  3. Interference

5-point Likert scale (0–4)Presented descriptively
Stage of change in the transtheoretical modelStages of change scale for exercise behaviour46 47 1 itemN.A.5-point scale (1–5)Presented descriptivelyScale has good 2 weeks test–retest reliability (κ=0.75, n=136).47 As the stage of change progressed, self-reported levels of physical activity and exercise practice tended to increase.47
Perceived social support for exercise habitsExercise-related social support scale48 5 itemsN.A.5-point scale (1–5)Total score (5–25)Reliability (Cronbach’s α=0.86) and construct validity (AGFI=0.93, RMSEA=0.07) have been confirmed in Japanese adults.48
Perceived support from formal relationships (exc. medical staff)Scale measuring human support from formal relationships49 50 6 itemsDomains
  1. Encouragement

  2. Inhibitory

  3. Intervention

5-point scale (1–5)Scores of each domain (5–15 in each domain)Cronbach's α=0.65–0.72. Scale’s construct validity (AGFI=0.98, RMSEA=0.03) has been confirmed in elderly Japanese adults.49 50
Degree of psychological resilienceRS 1452 14 itemsN.A.7-point scale (1–7)Total score (14–98)Japanese version has psychometric properties with high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.88) and test–retest reliability (ICC=0.84).53
  • AGFI, adjusted goodness of fit; AIS-J, Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale; CARS-J, Concerns about Recurrence Scale Japanese Version; CFS, Cancer Fatigue Scale; EQ-5D, EuroQol 5 Dimension; EQ-5D-5L, Euro-QOL-5 Dimensions-5 Levels; EQ-VAS, EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; GPAQ, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire; HRQOL, health-related quality of life; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient; MET, metabolic equivalent; MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; N.A., not applicable; PRO-CTCAE-J, Japanese version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; RMSEA, root mean square error of approximation;RS 14, Resilience Scale 14; SB, sedentary behaviour;VAS, Visual Analogue Scale; WHO-HPQ, WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire Short Form.