Table 2

Adverse event likelihood for home dialysis patients stratified according visual learning style

Number of patients,
n (%)
Age (years), mean±SDWeeks of training, mean±SDPatients with an adverse eventNumber of adverse eventsAdverse event rate
(per 100 patient-years)†
Unadjusted
OR*
Adjusted OR*‡
Learning style All
home
dialysis patients
Non-visual learners
(ARK, AR, AK, K, R, RK)
44 (37.3)55.5±14.56.6±5.1193533
Visual learners
(VARK, VAR, VAK, VRK, VK, VR, V)
74 (62.7)50.0±12.66.2±5.51118194.35 (1.82–10.44)
p=0.001
4.04 (1.41–11.54)
p=0.01
HHD
patients
Non-visual learners
(ARK, AR, AK, K, R, RK)
30
(38.5)
52.5±13.58.9±4.7142936
Visual learners
(VARK, VAR, VAK, VRK, VK, VR, V)
48
(61.5)
48.2±10.98.6±6.8410109.63 (2.76–33.59)
p=0.001
11.1 (2.32–53.21)
p=0.003
PD patients Non-visual learners
(ARK, AR, AK, K, R, RK)
14
(35)
61.9±14.71.6±0.55625
Visual learners
(VARK, VAR, VAK, VRK, VK, VR, V)
26
(65)
53.3±14.91.7±0.978351.51 (0.37–6.09)
p=0.564
1.60 (0.16–16.44)
p=0.694
  • P value <0.05: statistical significance.

  • *Adverse events included: PD exit site infections, PD peritonitis, wet contamination episodes, CVC exit site and tunnel infections, CVC damage by patient, access related bacteraemia, local infections at cannulation site, needle dislodgement.

  • †OR comparing the likelihood of a single adverse event for any patient. Reference groups for OR are visual learners.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, gender, dialysis modality, duration of training (in weeks), dialysis vintage, prior renal replacement therapy, visual impairment, level of education and REALM literacy.

  • A, auditory; CVC, central venous catheter; HHD, home haemodialysis; K, kinesthetic; PD, peritoneal dialysis; PD, peritoneal dialysis; R, reading; REALM, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine; V, visual.