Table 4

Most commonly used drugs per custom-defined drug class, per country, in an inpatient setting

Drug classKorea (AUSOM)Hong Kong (CDARS)Japan (JMDC)Taiwan (NHIRD)
Drug nameNumber per 1000 usersDrug nameNumber per 1000 usersDrug nameNumber per 1000 usersDrug nameNumber per 1000 users
AntibioticsCeftriaxone27.02Amoxicillin34.08Cefazolin10.09Cefazolin15.17
Roxithromycin19.03Gentamicin sulfate18.09Ampicillin9.2Amoxicillin10.9
Cefotaxime17.11Penicillin G14.33Sulbactam5.56Gentamicin Sulfate8.79
Ofloxacin16.84Cefuroxime12.72Clarithromycin5.25Ampicillin7
Clarithromycin10.9Ampicillin12.4Cefcapene4.61Cephalexin6.64
Analgesics (including NSAIDs)Paracetamol50.94Paracetamol127.67Paracetamol19.32Paracetamol30.17
Ibuprofen50.45Tramadol4.99Remifentanil7.34Diclofenac17.94
Tramadol28.9Ibuprofen4.78Flurbiprofen5.2Ibuprofen15.07
Fentanyl26.85Diclofenac1.66Loxoprofen4.39Meperidine5.21
Ketorolac19.11Aspirin1.29Pentazocine3.91Ketorolac4.81
AdrenergicsFormoterol27.63Salbutamol22.81Tulobuterol10.32Terbutaline8.09
Epinephrine26.85Pseudoephedrine6.01Procaterol8.12Pseudoephedrine7.79
Phenylephrine14.97Propranolol1.02Salbutamol7.51Procaterol7.5
Salbutamol14.64Terbutaline0.97Epinephrine4.62Fenoterol4.97
Pseudoephedrine6.12Phenylephrine0.59Ephedrine1.8Salbutamol4.74
AntihistaminesChlorpheniramine51.7Chlorpheniramine38.37Cyproheptadine5.23Cyproheptadine14.26
Ketotifen4.02Diphenhydramine19.59Epinastine1.24Chlorpheniramine4.4
Levocetirizine1.85Triprolidine6.01Ketotifen1.12Diphenhydramine3.01
Ebastine1.23Promethazine2.36Diphenhydramine1Brompheniramine1.94
Fexofenadine1Cetirizine0.8Mequitazine0.77Cetirizine1.91
MucolyticsBromhexine39.3Bromhexine2.09Carbocysteine18.93Acetylcysteine11.04
Acetylcysteine24.28Acetylcysteine1.02Ambroxol8.23Ambroxol7.18
Mannitol4.7Carbocysteine0.48Bromhexine4.6Bromhexine3.32
Erdosteine3.54Mesna0.27Acetylcysteine0.21Mannitol1.16
Carbocysteine0.69Eprazinone0.17Carbocysteine0.22
CorticosteroidsDexamethasone23.48Prednisolone9.34Prednisolone4.09Prednisolone4.92
Budesonide15.45Hydrocortisone7.89Methylprednisolone3.95Hydrocortisone4.61
Prednisolone12.11Beclomethasone3.6Dexamethasone3.36Dexamethasone4.4
Hydrocortisone10.15Dexamethasone2.9Hydrocortisone3.17Triamcinolone4.13
Prednicarbate7.74Budesonide1.29Betamethasone1.95Methylprednisolone3.61
Anti-infectivesOseltamivir3.27Hepatitis B immunoglobulin4.35Oseltamivir0.5Lysozyme0.62
Acyclovir2.53Oseltamivir2.84Lysozyme0.31Nystatin0.54
Fluconazole1.3Acyclovir2.15Palivizumab0.26Fluconazole0.37
Palivizumab0.55Clotrimazole2.09Acyclovir0.24Clotrimazole0.29
Itraconazole0.49Nystatin1.82Fluconazole0.2Acyclovir0.24
Anticlotting and antifibrinolytic agentsHeparin5.98Heparin0.91Heparin11.5Heparin1.33
Antithrombin III1.59Dipyridamole0.32Dipyridamole0.28Streptokinase0.19
Streptokinase0.6Urokinase0.27Warfarin0.25Urokinase0.11
Urokinase0.54Warfarin0.16Antithrombin III0.24Dipyridamole0.1
Enoxaparin0.1Enoxaparin0.11Urokinase0.07Warfarin0.06
AntiepilepticsPhenobarbital3.64Phenobarbital1.18Phenobarbital0.95Phenytoin0.66
Levetiracetam2.58Phenytoin0.7Carbamazepine0.63Phenobarbital0.59
Lamotrigine2.41Carbamazepine0.64Zonisamide0.15Clonazepam0.51
Topiramate1.38Levetiracetam0.59Levetiracetam0.14Oxcarbazepine0.23
Fosphenytoin0.8Topiramate0.32Clonazepam0.14Topiramate0.19
DiureticsFurosemide6.54Furosemide2.41Furosemide1.78Furosemide1.58
Spironolactone1.32Spironolactone1.45Spironolactone0.87Spironolactone0.17
Theobromine1.2Hydrochlorothiazide0.43Trichlormethiazide0.06Bumetanide0.03
Hydrochlorothiazide0.08Hydrochlorothiazide0.02Trichlormethiazide0.02
Torsemide0.02Amiloride0.01
Psychotherapeutic agentsHaloperidol0.58Risperidone1.34Droperidol0.79Haloperidol0.34
Risperidone0.52Haloperidol1.02Chlorpromazine0.37Risperidone0.2
Quetiapine0.42Fluoxetine0.75Risperidone0.26Quetiapine0.13
Escitalopram0.3Olanzapine0.48olanzapine0.11Aripiprazole0.09
Fluoxetine0.28Sertraline0.43Haloperidol0.1Sulpiride0.08
Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agentsFilgrastim0.68Vincristine0.43Methotrexate0.16Methotrexate0.2
Methotrexate0.5Doxorubicin0.38Vincristine0.14Cytarabine0.16
Cyclophosphamide0.45Methotrexate0.32Cyclophosphamide0.14Filgrastim0.16
Vincristine0.35Cyclophosphamide0.32Tacrolimus0.13Vincristine0.14
Ciclosporin0.34Cytarabine0.32Ciclosporin0.13Cyclophosphamide0.14
Central nervous system stimulantsCaffeine0.66Caffeine1.4Caffeine0.1Piracetam0.27
Methylphenidate0.23Methylphenidate0.8Atomoxetine0.03Methylphenidate0.08
Acetylcarnitine0.05Tomoxetine0.11Methylphenidate0.02Atomoxetine<0.01
Drug classKorea (AUSOM)Hong Kong (CDARS)Japan (JMDC)Taiwan (NHIRD)Drug classKorea (AUSOM)Hong Kong (CDARS)
Antidiabetic drugsRegular insulin3.24Metformin0.27Regular insulin0.5Regular insulin0.54
Insulin detemir0.32Insulin detemir0.11Insulin glargine0.06Insulin glargine0.09
Insulin glargine0.12Gliclazide0.11Insulin lispro0.04Metformin0.05
Metformin0.06Metformin0.01Insulin detemir0.04
Insulin glulisine0.05Insulin glulisine0.01Glimepiride0.01
ContraceptivesMegestrol0.16Levonorgestrel0.16Norethindrone<0.01Medroxyprogesterone0.02
Medroxyprogesterone0.04Medroxyprogesterone0.05Medroxyprogesterone<0.01Megestrol0.01
Norethindrone0.05
  • AUSOM, the South Korean Ajou University School of Medicine; CDARS, the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System; JMDC, the Japan Medical Data Center ; NHIRD, Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.