Table 2

Health, lifestyle and yoga practice variables of complete sample, yoga teachers and yoga practitioners

Percent* (n)
AllYoga teachersYoga practitionersAvailable normative data
Smoking history
 Never56.4 (1348)53.1 (474)59.0 (786)
 Ex-smoker39.4 (940)43.8 (391)36.1 (481)
 Current smoker4.2 (100)**3.1 (28)**4.9 (65)**15.136
Daily fruit/vegetable intake
 ≤26.7 (163)4.7 (42)7.9 (107)
 3-438.6 (932)33.5 (302)41.9 (565)
 ≥554.7 (1320)**61.8 (557)**50.1 (676)**26.037
Diet
 Omnivore53.3 (1286)42.1 (378)60.7 (818)
 Pescetarian13.6 (328)18.0 (162)10.8 (146)
 Vegetarian18.7 (455)24.5 (220)14.8 (199)
 Vegan3.9 (95)5.1 (46)3.3 (44)
 Other10.4 (250)10.2 (92)10.5 (141)
General health status
 Excellent17.9 (392)25.0 (214)13.3 (176)
 Very good44.4 (973)48.4 (415)41.8 (552)
 Good30.3 (664)22.4 (192)35.4 (467)
 Fair6.7 (147)3.5 (30)8.9 (117)
 Poor0.6 (14)0.7 (6)0.6 (8)
Obese (BMI ≥30)5.1 (114)**3.1 (27)**6.6 (87)**26.037
Mean (± SD)
BMI23.49 (± 3.61)**22.92 (± 3.20)**23.87 (± 3.81)**27.756
Alcohol units (per week)6.47 (± 7.53)5.77 (± 6.92)7.01 (± 7.80)
Exercise (days per week)3.63 (± 2.07)3.73 (± 2.15)3.54 (± 2.0)
Well-being (WEMWBS)53.90 (± 7.78)**56.02 (± 6.79)**52.53 (± 8.08)**51.133
Stress (PSS-4)4.59 (± 2.80)**3.90 (± 2.54)**5.03 (± 2.86)**6.139
Satisfaction with life (ONS)7.94 (± 1.51)**8.28 (± 1.31)**7.72 (± 1.57)7.740
Life worthwhile (ONS)8.27 (± 1.53)**8.71 (± 1.24)**7.80 (± 1.63)*7.940
Happiness yesterday (ONS)7.96 (± 1.75)**8.29 (± 1.55)**7.75 (± 1.84)**7.540
Anxiety yesterday (ONS)3.49 (± 2.47)**3.19 (± 2.48)*3.68 (± 2.43)**2.940
Yoga practice
 Hours at home per week2.79 (± 3.17)4.46 (± 3.61)1.62 (± 2.21)
 Hours in class per week2.73 (± 2.40)2.87 (± 2.56)2.50 (± 1.82)
 Days per week3.88 (± 1.96)4.99 (± 1.59)3.25 (± 1.86)
 Years of practice13.9 (± 11.6)18.18 (± 10.10)10.5 (± 10.61)
  • *P<0.05; **p<0.0005 (see table 1 in online supplementary material for further details).

  • †Of total responses (valid percent). Significantly different from available norms using χ2 and 1-sample t-tests.

  • BMI, body mass index; ONS, Office of National Statistics; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale.