Table 3

HRs (95% CIs) for associations between BMF and multiple vascular and non-vascular diseases stratified by obesity status

DiseasesObesity subgroupsMore than once a dayOnce every 1 to 3 days*Less than three times a weekP value for interaction†
CasesHR (95%CI)CasesHR (95%CI)CasesHR (95%CI)
Vascular diseases
IHD0.383
No27711.15 (1.10 to 1.19)22 109112581.04 (0.98 to 1.11)
Yes18971.10 (1.04 to 1.15)11 80915031.13 (1.03 to 1.23)
MCEs0.001
No5771.07 (0.98 to 1.17)447812381.07 (0.93 to 1.22)
Yes2940.91 (0.81 to 1.03)224711381.57 (1.31 to 1.86)
Haemorrhagic stroke0.624
No7060.98 (0.90 to 1.06)554312691.08 (0.96 to 1.23)
Yes3220.93 (0.82 to 1.04)20361671.05 (0.82 to 1.34)
Ischaemic stroke0.688
No23671.02 (0.98 to 1.07)20 903112211.10 (1.03 to 1.16)
Yes16771.01 (0.96 to 1.06)10 98214291.07 (0.97 to 1.18)
Heart failure0.356
No3601.36 (1.22 to 1.52)249311520.96 (0.81 to 1.13)
Yes1751.25 (1.06 to 1.47)9731511.22 (0.92 to 1.62)
Non-vascular diseases
COPD0.353
No11321.29 (1.21 to 1.37)707013710.98 (0.88 to 1.09)
Yes3861.21 (1.08 to 1.35)20231720.90 (0.71 to 1.14)
T2DM0.506
No10481.35 (1.27 to 1.44)706913380.80 (0.72 to 0.90)
Yes11591.25 (1.17 to 1.33)552211420.77 (0.65 to 0.91)
CKD0.051
No5451.22 (1.11 to 1.33)378912521.23 (1.08 to 1.40)
Yes2761.01 (0.88 to 1.15)16021621.05 (0.81 to 1.35)
  • Multivariable models adjusted for the same set of covariates as table 2, except for BMI (kg/m2) and waist circumference (cm). Obesity status was defined according to BMI and WC, with ‘yes’ as BMI ≥28.0 kg/m2 or WC ≥90.0 cm (men) / ≥85.0 cm (women).

  • *Combined group including ‘once a day’ and ‘once every 2 to 3 days’.

  • †A Bonferroni corrected threshold was used, α=0.00625.

  • BMF, bowel movement frequency; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MCEs, major coronary events; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; WC, waist circumference.