Table 3

Risk of bias in RCTs using RoB tool

Randomisation processAssignment of interventionAdhering to interventionMeasurement of outcomesMissing outcome dataSelection of the reported result
Humar et al, 201015 +++++?
Halim et al, 201631 ?++?+?
Witzke et al, 201233 +++?+?
Reischig et al, 201235 +++?+?
Reischig et al, 201536 +++?+?
Togashi et al, 201138 ?++?+?
Padulles et al, 201625 +++++?
Palmer et al, 201027 ++?++?
Chawla et al, 201128 ????+?
Boeckh et al, 201529 ++?++?
Kim et al, 201030 ?+*+?+?
Perrella et al, 201247 ????+?
Winston et al, 201417 +++++?
Chaftari et al, 201248 +???+?
Huang et al, 201219 ++??+?
Park et al, 201649 ?++?+?
  • +low risk; ?, some concerns.

  • RCT, randomised controlled trials; RoB, risk-of-bias.