Table 1

Demographic and clinical description of patients with heart failure (n=14 670)

CharacteristicsWomen (n=8488)Men (n=6182)P value
Demographics
 Sex (%)57.9 (57.1–58.7)42.1 (41.3–42.9)<0.001
 Mean age (years)79.9 (79.6–80.1)75.2 (74.8–75.5)<0.001
 Age interval (%)
  ≤44 years2.34 (2.02–2.67)3.87 (3.39–4.35)
  45–64 years6.03 (5.53–6.54)13.2 (12.3–14.0)
  65–84 years52.6 (51.5–53.6)58.7 (57.4–59.9)
  ≥85 years39.0 (38.0–40.1)24.3 (23.2–25.3)
 Urban area (vs rural) (%)55.7 (54.6–56.7)52.3 (51.0–53.5)<0.001
 Immigrants (%)0.95 (0.74–1.16)1.38 (1.08–1.67)0.017
Clinical information
 3-year all-cause mortality (%)33.3 (32.3–34.3)36.5 (35.3–37.7)<0.001
 Multimorbidity* (%)98.2 (97.9–98.4)97.7 (97.3–98.1)0.068
 Mean number of diseases7.77 (7.69–7.85)7.87 (7.77–7.97)0.114
 Prevalence of comorbidities (%)
  Hypertension71.2 (70.2–72.1)65.0 (63.8–66.2)<0.001
  Cardiac arrhythmia35.5 (34.4–36.5)42.6 (41.4–43.9)<0.001
  Disorders of lipid metabolism36.9 (35.8–37.9)37.6 (36.4–38.8)0.388
  Arthropathy36.8 (35.8–37.8)23.9 (22.8–25.0)<0.001
  Diabetes30.3 (29.4–31.3)32.3 (31.2–33.5)0.010
  Varicose veins of lower extremities29.4 (28.4–30.4)11.8 (11.0–12.6)<0.001
  Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, COPD13.3 (12.6–14.0)32.8 (31.6–34.0)<0.001
  Cardiovascular disorders, other19.2 (18.4–20.0)24.0 (22.9–25.0)<0.001
  Ischaemic heart disease (excluding AMI†)15.3 (14.5–16.0)24.6 (23.5–25.7)<0.001
  Obesity20.3 (19.4–21.1)17.6 (16.7–18.5)<0.001
  Depression24.8 (23.8–25.7)10.9 (10.1–11.7)<0.001
  Cataract, aphakia19.7 (18.9–20.6)16.9 (15.9–17.8)<0.001
  Surgical aftercare15.8 (15.0–16.6)19.3 (18.3–20.2)<0.001
  Cardiac valve disorders17.0 (16.2–17.8)17.5 (16.6–18.4)0.394
  Iron deficiency, other deficiency anemias17.3 (16.5–18.1)15.6 (14.7–16.5)0.007
  Osteoporosis23.1 (22.2–24.0)3.69 (3.22–4.16)<0.001
  Cerebrovascular disease13.9 (13.2–14.7)14.3 (13.4–15.1)0.604
  Respiratory disorders, other12.5 (11.8–13.2)16.1 (15.2–17.1)<0.001
  Hypothyroidism17.6 (16.8–18.4)6.44 (5.83–7.05)<0.001
  Dementia and delirium13.3 (12.6–14.0)8.44 (7.75–9.14)<0.001
  Prostatic hypertrophy24.6 (23.5–25.7)
  Dermatitis and eczema9.80 (9.17–10.4)10.3 (9.58–11.1)0.287
  Chronic renal failure8.19 (7.60–8.77)12.3 (11.5–13.1)<0.001
  Glaucoma10.4 (9.76–11.1)8.61 (7.91–9.30)<0.001
  Deafness, hearing loss9.57 (8.94–10.2)9.17 (8.45–9.89)0.419
  AMI†5.84 (5.34–6.34)13.8 (12.9–14.6)<0.001
  Chronic ulcer of the skin10.2 (9.58–10.9)7.40 (6.74–8.04)<0.001
  Hematologic disorders, other7.94 (7.37–8.52)9.43 (8.70–10.2)0.002
  Asthma10.6 (10.0–11.3)4.69 (4.16–5.22)<0.001
  Low back pain6.54 (6.01–7.06)6.10 (5.50–6.69)0.280
  Gout2.70 (2.35–3.04)10.5 (9.75–11.3)<0.001
  Neurologic disorders, other6.63 (6.10–7.16)5.10 (4.55–5.64)<0.001
  Diverticular disease of colon5.75 (5.25–6.24)4.82 (4.29–5.35)0.014
  Other endocrine disorders5.96 (5.46–6.47)3.80 (3.32–4.28)<0.001
  • 95% confidence intervals are displayed within brackets. Only comorbidities with a mean prevalence equal to or greater than 5% are displayed.

  • *Defined as having two or more chronic conditions from a list of 114 chronic diagnoses.

  • †Acute myocardial infarction.