Table 3

Potential adverse and beneficial effects of the podcast

Potential adverse effectsCorresponding beneficial effects
  • Distrust of health professionals or conflict between participants and health professionals

  • Appropriate questioning of health professionals, better understanding and better healthcare.

  • Conflict between religious beliefs and scientific principles

  • Engagement of participants and others in discussion about religious beliefs and science.

  • More difficult decision-making about healthcare

  • More thoughtful and informed decisions about healthcare.

  • Nihilism or cynicism

  • Healthy scepticism and appreciation of science.

  • Anxiety or discomfort with uncertainty

  • Understanding and acceptance of uncertainty.

Other potential beneficial effects
  • Impacts on children or others

The podcast might indirectly improve children’s understanding and ability to apply the concepts being learnt by the parents or the podcast might be shared with others in the household or other contacts of the study participants.
  • Awareness of the basis for claims about treatment effects

Participants becoming more aware and thinking critically about the basis for claims about treatment effects.
  • Attitudes and behaviours towards evidence of treatment effects

Participants desiring and asking for evidence supporting claims about treatment effects.
  • Awareness, attitudes and behaviours in relation to other types of causal claims

Participants becoming more aware and thinking critically about the basis for causal claims not related to treatments, and desiring and asking for evidence supporting those claims.
  • Questioning more

Participants asking more questions and not taking things for granted.
  • Engagement in informed discussions about policies

Participants becoming more engaged in discussions about health policies, and desiring and asking for evidence supporting claims about health policies.
  • Impacts on other types of decisions

Participants making more thoughtful and informed decisions about interventions or activities that are not related to health.