Table 3

Characteristics of included studies

StudyTitleCountryStudy setting (eg, PHC)Study designType of participants /subject/ study population
Balcazar et al, 201147Salud para su corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in hispanics/latinosUS-Mexico borderCommunity and clinical basedTwo groups pre–post testHispanic communities
Balcázar et al, 201248An ecological model using promotores de salud to prevent cardiovascular disease on the US-Mexico border: the HEART projectUS-Mexico border, TexasCommunity-based participatory research, HEART project, ecological approachCohort type pre–post designHispanic adults aged 18 years or older who resided in the 2 selected zip codes, were not planning to move from the area in the next 10 months, and were able to participate in the physical activities of MiCMiC were eligible
Balcázar et al, 200948A randomized community intervention to improve hypertension control among Mexican Americans: using the promotoras de salud community outreach modelUS-Mexico border: TexasCommunity-based participatory researchRandomised community interventionHispanic communities
Balcázar et al, 201029A promotores de salud intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in a high-risk Hispanic border population, 2005–2008US-Mexico border, TexasCommunity-based participatory researchRandomised community trialHispanic community
Barnes-Boyd et al, 200150Promoting infant health through home visiting by a nurse-managed community worker teamChicago, USACommunity and clinical basedNon-randomisedAfrican-American women/mothers to be
Braschi et al, 201430New York, USAPrimare care centreRandomised clinical trialVulnerable population: Latino Americans
Cruz et al, 201349The effectiveness of a community health program in improving diabetes knowledge in the Hispanic population: Salud y Bienestar (Health and Wellness)California, Texas, Washington DC, USACommunity settingQuasi experimental, one group pre-test and post-test designHispanic population
DeGroff et al, 201731Patient navigation for colonoscopy completion: results of an RCTBoston, USAMedical centreRandomised control trialLow-income, adults, primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic blacks
Denman et al, 201452Evaluation of the community-based chronic disease prevention program Meta Salud in Northern Mexico, 2011–2012Sonora, MexicoCommunity health centreNon-randomised, quasi experimental, pre-test, post-test studyLow-income resident of urban area. Majority with Mexican heritage
Goelen et al, 201032A community peer-volunteer telephone reminder call to increase breast cancer-screening attendanceBelgiumSemirural communityIndividual level randomised trialFemale, 50–59 years old, living in semi-rural part of Belgium, who had not attended the screening
Hoffman et al, 201233Patient navigation significantly reduces delays in breast cancer diagnosis in the District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia, USAWomen were examined from 2006 to 2009 at 9 hospitals/clinics at DCRandomised, network navigationLow-income Women, mainly Latinas, African-Americans
Honeycutt et al, 201363Evaluation of a patient navigation program to promote colorectal cancer screening in rural Georgia, USARural Georgia, USA13 Community health centre, of which 4 clinics had community cancer screening programme available comprise the intervention groupQuasi experimental/programme or performance evaluation between intervention and comparison community health clinicsUninsured and underinsured low-income population
Horne et al, 201534Effect of patient navigation on colorectal cancer screening in a community-based randomized controlled trial of urban African American adultsBaltimore city, USAClinical settings and community-based avenues such as senior centres in urban areasCommunity-based randomised control trialOlder African-American adults, aged 65 and older
Hunter et al, 200435The impact of a promotora on increasing routine chronic disease prevention among women aged 40 and older at the U.S.-Mexico borderSonora, Mexico and Arizona, USAParticipants were randomly selected from the communitiesRandomised controlled interventionsUninsured Hispanic women aged 40 years and older
Jandorf et al, 201336Culturally targeted patient navigation for increasing African Americans’ adherence to screening colonoscopy: a randomized clinical trialUSAPrimary care clinicRandomised clinical trialAfrican-American, aged 50 years and above
Jandorf et al, 201337Implementation of culturally targeted patient navigation system for screening colonoscopy in a direct referral systemNY, USAUrban primary care clinicRandomised into peer-patient navigation (PN) group and pro-PN group.African-American patients
Kegler and Malcoe, 200453Results from a lay health advisor intervention to prevent lead poisoning among rural Native American childrenOttawa County, Oklahoma, USACommunity basedIntervention focus on entire native communityEntire native community members
Kiefferet al, 201338Effectof the healthy mothers on the move (MOMs) lifestyle intervention on reducing depressive symptoms among pregnant LatinasSouthwest DetroitHealthy MOMs was conducted in several community partner organisation settingsCommunity-based randomised control trialA pregnant Latina was eligible to participate in this study
Koniak-Griffin et al 201539A community health worker-led lifestyle ehaviour intervention for Latina (Hispanic) women: feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trialLA, USACommunity basedRandomised controlled trialSelf-identified Latinas, 35–64 years of age, Spanish and/or English speaking and over weight (BMI≥25)
Krantz et al, 201762Reduction in cardiovascular risk among Latino participants in a community-based intervention linked with clinical careDenver, USAPrimary care settingConvenience sampling, before and after designSelf-identified Latinos, 45 years and above
Larkey et al, 201740A cancer screening intervention for underserved Latina women by lay educatorsPhoenix, ArizonaCommunity basedGroup randomised trialUnderserved Latinas, self-identifying as Hispanic/Latina
Marshall et al, 201641Effect of patient navigation on breast cancer screening among African American Medicare beneficiaries: a randomized controlled trialBaltimore city, USACommunity based and clinical settingRandomised control trialAfrican-American older adult women
Mojica et al, 201654Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer education and navigation: results of a community health worker interventionSan Antonia, Texas, USACommunity basedA single-arm, non-randomised, pre–post designEligible participants were Latino women (1) aged 40–74 years who had never had a mammogram or not had one in the last 2 years, (2) aged 18–65 years who had never had a Pap test or not had one in the last 3 years or (3) aged 50–75 years who had never had a stool blood test or not had one in the last 2 years
Molina et al, 201845Patient navigation improves subsequent breast
cancer screening after a noncancerous result:
evidence from the patient navigation in medically underserved areas study
Chicago, Illinois, USAClinical settingRandomised controlled trialWomen aged 50–74 years residing in medically underserved areas
Parra-Medina et al, 201555Promotora outreach, education and navigation support for HPV vaccination to Hispanic women with unvaccinated daughtersSouth Texas, USAParticipants were selected from community events, health fairs and also approached women one-on-one within their community resource centres and surrounding coloniesCommunity based: non-randomisedWomen of self-reported Hispanic ethnicity with a daughter, aged 11–17 years, who has not received the HPV vaccine and reside in Cameron or Hidalgo counties
Percac-Lima et al, 201642Patient navigation for comprehensive cancer screening in high-risk patients using a population-based health information technology system: a randomized clinical trialMassachusetts, USAPrimary care practicesRandomised clinical trialLow-income and racial/ethnic minority populations
Percac-Lima et al, 201356The impact of a culturally tailored patient navigator program on cervical cancer prevention in Latina womenChelsea, Massachusetts, USAThe study was conducted at the MGH (Massachusetts General Hospital) Colposcopy Clinic and the MGH Chelsea HealthCare Centre (MGH Chelsea), an urban community health centre in MassachusettsNon-randomisedWomen were eligible for the study if they self-identified as Latina, had an abnormal Pap smear requiring colposcopy evaluation between 1 January 2004 and 15 April 2011
Percac-Lima et al, 201457The longitudinal impact of patient navigation on equity in colorectal cancer screening in a large primary care networkUSACommunity health centreColorectal cancer (CRC) screening rate was compared between community health centre with patient navigation and CHC without patient navigationLow-income, predominantly Latinos and immigrants
Simmons et al, 200843Development and piloting of a community health worker-based intervention for the prevention of diabetes among New Zealand Maori in Te Wai o Rona: diabetes prevention strategyNew ZealandCommunity basedRandomised cluster-control trial, sample were clustered according to small census areaNon-pregnant Maori community members, Those unfit to sign a consent form, with terminal disease or not permanently residing in the study area at the time of the baseline data collection were excluded
Staten et al, 201258Effectiveness of the Pasos Adelante chronic disease prevention and control program in a US-Mexico border community, 2005–2008USA: US-Mexico borderCommunity basedNon-randomisedParticipants were primarily Hispanic women who were born in Mexico, preferred speaking Spanish, were married and were not educated beyond high school
Treadwell et al, 201059Addressing obesity and diabetes among African American men: examination of a community-based model of preventionLorain County, Ohio, USACommunity basedNon-randomisedAfrican-American men
Wagoner et al, 201564Latino men’s qualitative perspectives on a lay health advisor (LHA) intervention to promote their sexual healthNorth Carolina, USACommunity-based participatory researchQualitative study to understand the effectiveness of LHA intervention designed to reduce the risk of HIV infectionLatino men who served as LHAs and their social networks in North Carolina, USA
Wells et al, 201260Creating a patient navigation model to address cervical cancer disparities in a rural Hispanic farmworker communityFlorida, USARural community settingNon-randomisedHispanic farmworkers
Wilson et al, 201561Cost-effectiveness analysis of a colonoscopy screening navigator program designed for Hispanic menTexas, USACommunity settingNon-randomisedHispanic males 50 and older who were members of Care Link (Bexar County’s financial assistance programme) and who had not received colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the last 10 years
Woodruff et al, 201044Recruitment, training outcomes, retention, and performance of community health advisors in two tobacco control interventions for LatinosSan DiegoCommunity settingRandomised trialsLatino community
  • PHC, primary health care.