Table 2

Difference between cities versus rural areas and smokers versus non-smokers in prevalence of smoking and support for smoking bans at Wave 5

CitiesRuralP value (cities vs rural)
Overall % (total n size)Smokers
% (total n size)
Non-Smokers
% (total n size)
P value (smokers vs non-smokers)Overall % (total n size)Smokers
% (total n size)
Non-Smokers
% (total n size)
P value (smokers vs non-smokers)
Smoking in workplaces 43.8 (1592)50.3 (1263)41.9 (329)0.104 61.8 (566) 74.4 (457) 57.6 (109) 0.022* 0.006**
Smoking in restaurants58.7 (3286)60.7 (2543)58.3 (743)0.57856.1 (984)58.3 (788)55.5 (196)0.7820.683
Smoking in bars78.6 (497)83.2 (426)77.1 (71)0.55267.9 (152)59.8 (134)76.3 (18)0.2060.200
Support for ban in workplaces73.2 (4470) 63.2 (3423) 75.4 (1047) <0.001*** 61.7 (4927)56.9 (3918)62.3 (1009)0.2180.109
Support for ban in restaurants61.1 (4469) 54.2 (3424) 62.6 (1045) 0.032* 55.8 (4924)49.5 (3915)57.4 (1009)0.0590.445
Support for ban in bars41.1 (4453)37.4 (3408)41.9 (1045)0.29644.2 (4896)38.2 (3891)46.5 (1005)0.0740.633
  • Bold numbers represent a significant difference between the percentages between groups (cities vs rural areas overall; and smokers vs non-smokers within cities or rural areas). Results were adjusted for gender, age group, smoking status and time in sample; however, time in sample was removed from the model for the noticing smoking in bars results due to its unexpected influence on the adjusted results.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.