Table 2

Search strategy

#2(infant*(Title/Abstract)OR neonat*(Title/Abstract)OR baby(Title/Abstract)OR babies(Title/Abstract)OR newborn*(Title/Abstract))
#3#1 OR #2
#4‘Pain’(Mesh) OR ‘Pain Measurement’(Mesh)
#5(pain*(Title/Abstract)OR hurt*(Title/Abstract)OR agony(Title/Abstract)OR agonising(Title/Abstract)OR agonising(Title/Abstract)OR suffer*(Title/Abstract)OR distress*(Title/Abstract))
#6#4 OR #5
#7(‘Machine Learning’(Mesh) OR ‘Algorithms’(Mesh:NoExp)OR ‘Expert Systems’(Mesh) OR ‘Limit of Detection’(Mesh) OR ‘Artificial Intelligence”(Mesh:NoExp)OR ‘Neural Networks (Computer)“(Mesh) OR ‘Facial Recognition”(Mesh) OR ‘Biometric Identification”(Mesh:NoExp)OR ‘Facial Expression”(Mesh:NoExp)OR ‘pattern recognition, automated”(mesh))
#8(‘facial recognition’(title/abstract)OR ‘pain recognition’(title/abstract)OR ‘pain detection’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘detecting pain’(title/abstract)OR automated(Title/Abstract)OR automatic(title/abstract)OR ‘recognising pain’(title/abstract)OR ‘machine learning’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘deep learning’(Title/Abstract)OR algorithm*(Title/Abstract)OR ‘neural network’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘neural networks’(Title/Abstract)OR SVM(Title/Abstract)OR ‘support vector machine’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘support vector machines’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘computer vision’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘artificial intelligence’(Title/Abstract)OR RVM(Title/Abstract)OR ‘relevance vector machine’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘relevance vector machines’(Title/Abstract)OR AAM(Title/Abstract)OR ‘active appearance model’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘active appearance models’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘K NN’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘k nearest neighbour’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘random forest trees’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘random forest tree’(Title/Abstract)OR PNN(Title/Abstract)OR ‘gaussian classifier’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘gaussian classifiers’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘nearest mean classifier’(Title/Abstract)OR ‘nearest mean classifiers’(Title/Abstract))
#9#7 OR #8
#10#3 AND #6 AND #9 AND (“2008/01/01”(PDAT) : ‘3000/12/31’(PDAT))
#2infant*:ab,ti OR neonat*:ab,ti OR baby:ab,ti OR babies:ab,ti OR newborn*:ab,ti
#3#1 OR #2
#4'pain'/exp OR 'pain measurement'/de
#5pain*:ab,ti OR hurt*:ab,ti OR agony:ab,ti OR agonising:ab,ti OR agonising:ab,ti OR suffer*:ab,ti OR distress*:ab,ti
#6#4 OR #5
#7'algorithm'/de OR 'machine learning'/exp OR 'expert system'/de OR 'limit of detection'/exp OR 'artificial intelligence'/exp OR 'pattern recognition'/exp
#8'facial recognition':ab,ti OR 'pain recognition':ab,ti OR 'pain detection':ab,ti OR 'detecting pain':ab,ti OR automated:ab,ti OR automatic:ab,ti OR 'recognising pain':ab,ti OR 'machine learning':ab,ti OR 'deep learning':ab,ti OR algorithm*:ab,ti OR 'neural network':ab,ti OR 'neural networks':ab,ti OR svm:ab,ti OR 'support vector machine':ab,ti OR 'support vector machines':ab,ti OR 'computer vision':ab,ti OR 'artificial intelligence':ab,ti OR rvm:ab,ti OR 'relevance vector machine':ab,ti OR 'relevance vector machines':ab,ti OR aam:ab,ti OR 'active appearance model':ab,ti OR 'active appearance models':ab,ti OR 'k nn':ab,ti OR 'k nearest neighbour':ab,ti OR 'random forest trees':ab,ti OR 'random forest tree':ab,ti OR pnn:ab,ti OR 'gaussian classifier':ab,ti OR 'gaussian classifiers':ab,ti OR 'nearest mean classifier':ab,ti OR 'nearest mean classifiers':ab,ti
#9#7 OR #8
#10#3 AND #6 AND #9 AND(2008–2019)/py
IEEE 2008 to present
(infant* OR neonat* OR baby OR babies OR newborn*) AND (pain* OR hurt OR hurts OR hurting OR agony OR agonising OR agonising OR suffer OR suffering OR suffers OR suffered OR distress*)
Web of Science
#1TOPIC: (infant* or neonat* or baby or babies or newborn*)
#2TOPIC: (‘facial recognition’ OR ‘pain recognition’ OR ‘pain detection’ OR ‘detecting pain’ OR automated OR automatic OR ‘recognising pain’ OR ‘machine learning’ OR ‘deep learning’ OR algorithm* OR ‘neural network’ OR ‘neural networks’ OR SVM OR ‘support vector machine’ OR ‘support vector machines’ OR ‘computer vision’ OR ‘artificial intelligence’ OR RVM OR ‘relevance vector machine’ OR ‘relevance vector machines’ OR AAM OR ‘active appearance model’ OR ‘active appearance models’ OR ‘K NN’ OR ‘k nearest neighbour’ OR ‘random forest trees’ OR ‘random forest tree’ OR PNN OR ‘gaussian classifier’ OR ‘gaussian classifiers’ OR ‘nearest mean classifier’ OR ‘nearest mean classifiers’)
#3TOPIC: (pain* or hurt* or agony or agonising or agonising or suffer* or distress*)
#4#3 AND #2 AND #1
Refined by: PUBLICATION YEARS: (2019 OR 2010 OR 2018 OR 2009 OR 2017 OR 2008 OR 2016 OR 2015 OR 2014 OR 2013 OR 2012 OR 2011)Indexes: SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, BKCI-S, BKCI-SSH, ESCI, CCR-EXPANDED, IC.
  • AAM, active appearance model; PNN, probabilistic neural network; RVM, relevance vector machine; SVM, support vector machine.