Table 1

Baseline characteristics for fathers and children by treatment arm

HDHK-UK programmeMinimum interventionOverall
Fathersn=29n=14N=43
Age (years)
 Mean (SD), N39.4 (6.3), 2941.1 (6.6), 1440.0 (6.4), 43
Ethnicity
 White British12 (41.4)5 (35.7)17 (39.5)
 Non-white British17 (58.6)9 (64.3)26 (60.5)
Highest level of qualification
 GCSE, CSE, O level or equivalent7 (24.1)6 (42.9)13 (30.2)
 A level/AS level or equivalent3 (10.3)2 (14.3)5 (11.6)
 Degree level or higher15 (51.7)6 (42.9)21 (48.8)
 Other2 (6.9)0 (0.0)2 (4.7)
 Missing2 (6.9)0 (0.0)2 (4.7)
Legal marital or civil partnership status
 Married or in a registered civil partnership25 (86.2)13 (92.9)38 (88.4)
 Divorced or formerly in a civil partnership, which is now legally dissolved1 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.3)
 Never married and never registered in a civil partnership1 (3.5)1 (7.1)2 (4.7)
 Missing2 (6.9)0 (0.0)2 (4.7)
Main spoken language
 English23 (79.3)14 (100.0)37 (86.1)
 Urdu1 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.3)
 Punjabi1 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.3)
 Spanish1 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.3)
 Turkish1 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.3)
 Missing2 (6.9)0 (0.0)2 (4.7)
Index of multiple deprivation quintile, n (%)
 1 (least deprived)1 (3.5)0 (0.0)1 (2.3)
 21 (3.5)1 (7.1)2 (4.7)
 35 (17.2)1 (7.1)6 (14.0)
 45 (17.2)4 (28.6)9 (20.9)
 5 (most deprived)17 (58.6)6 (42.9)23 (53.5)
 Missing0 (0.0)2 (14.3)2 (4.7)
BMI (kg/m²)
 Mean (SD), n30.1 (4.8), 2930.2 (5.8), 1430.2 (5.1), 43
Weight at baseline (kg)
 Mean (SD), n90.1 (13.2), 2992.2 (19.3), 14
Percentage body fat (%)
 Mean (SD), n28.3 (7.6), 2829.8 (9.0), 1428.8 (8.0), 42
Waist circumference (cm)
 Mean (SD), n101.8 (8.5), 19103.1 (15.0), 14102.3 (11.5), 33
International physical activity questionnaire25 (IPAQ-short)
 Low activity8 (27.6)6 (42.9)14 (32.6)
 Moderate activity10 (34.5)4 (28.6)14 (32.6)
 Vigorous activity10 (34.5)3 (21.4)13 (30.2)
 Missing1 (3.5)1 (7.1)2 (4.7)
Total activity (min) from GENEactiv measurement
 Median (IQR)207.3 (175.8–270.1)213.6 (157.4–248.9)210.4 (167.7–264.6)
 Missing415
Moderate/vigorous activity (min) from GENEactiv measurement
 Median (IQR)110.8 (88.4–141.3)87.0 (75.9–148.4)109.7 (83.8–148.4)
 Missing415
EQ-5D-5L Index score32 (adult quality of life)
 Mean (SD)0.91 (0.16)0.95 (0.07)0.93 (0.13)
 Missing202
ICECAP-A total capability score44 (adult well-being and quality of life)
 Mean (SD)0.86 (0.15)0.95 (0.06)0.89 (0.13)
 Missing101
 Childrenn=42n=19N=61
Age (years)
 Mean (SD)7.7 (2.0)7.8 (2.2)7.7 (2.1)
 Minimum–maximum4.2–11.54.0–11.74.0–11.7
Sex
 Female16 (38.1)6 (31.6)22 (36.1)
 Male26 (61.9)13 (68.4)39 (63.9)
BMI (kg/m²)
 Underweight/healthy20 (47.6)13 (68.4)33 (54.1)
 Overweight/obese16 (38.1)4 (21.1)20 (32.8)
 Missing6 (14.3)2 (10.5)8 (13.1)
Percentage body fat (%)
 Mean (SD)24.0 (5.8)22.9 (4.9)23.6 (5.5)
 Minimum–maximum10.3–36.716.9–37.310.3–37.3
 Missing639
  • Note: All figures presented are n (%) unless otherwise specified.

  • A level, Advanced level; AS level, Advanced Subsidiary level; BMI, body mass index; CSE, Certificate of Secondary Education; EQ-5D-5L, EuroQol; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; HDHK-UK, Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids United Kingdom; ICECAP-A, ICEpop CAPability Measure for Adults; O level, Ordinary level.