Table 5

Diagnostic characteristics

CharacteristicAutistic adults self-report formally diagnosed
(n=221)
Autistic adults self-report no formal diagnosis
(n=32)
Autistic adults informant-report
(n=42)
Carers
(n=102)
Non-autistic self-report
(n=146)
AQ score mean (SD)87.6 (10.3) n=21083.7 (8.8)84.2 (9.5) n=3657.3 (13.8) n=60*55.1 (11.9) n=137
Above AQ cut-off (%)203 (97)31 (97)35 (97)18 (30)30 (22)
†Autism diagnosis
Autism spectrum disorder/condition49 (22)17 (40)
Asperger’s syndrome130 (59)11 (26)
Autistic disorder1 (0)6 (14)
‘High-functioning’ autism32 (14)3 (7)
PDD-NOS1 (0)1 (2)
Other6 (3)2 (5)
No formal diagnosis32 (100)1 (2)
Age at diagnosis mean (SD)35.3 (15.1) n=21710.01 (10.8) n=38
Years since diagnosis mean (SD)6.9 (8.3) n=21721.9 (9.8) n=38
Intellectual disability (%)10 (4)1 (3)33 (78)1 (1)1 (1)
Other developmental disability (%)6 (3)2 (6)9 (21)01 (1)
‡Other psychiatric diagnosis(%)
Currently148 (69) n=21313 (42) n=3122 (52)38 (39) n=10029 (21) n=140
At any time191 (89) n=21328 (90) n=3131 (74)68 (68) n=10067 (48) n=140
Depression (PHQ-9) above cut-off (%)103 (52) n=19915 (52) n=2928 (29) n=9715 (12) n=126
Anxiety (DSM-5 GAD-A) above cut-off (%)115 (56) n=20614 (47) n=3227 (27) n=9914 (11) n=130
  • *Carers were asked to complete the AQ scale only if they were a biological relative of the adult with autism.

  • †Autism diagnosis: Autistic adults (self-report, diagnosed), n=220.

  • ‡Recording of a psychiatric diagnosis apart from autism spectrum conditions or intellectual disability.

  • AQ, Autism Quotient; GAD-A, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-Adult; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9.