Table 2

Comparisons of participant characteristics by outcome (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2010 linked to the 2011 National Death Index, n=41 990)

No CVDCVDP value for difference*
n=40 304n=1686
Time since interview (months)80.3 (±41.4)55.7 (±34.9)<0.0001
Wave
 99–005168 (12.8)275 (16.3)<0.0001
 01–0211 681 (29.0)967 (57.4)
 03–045401 (13.4)209 (12.4)
 05–065451 (13.5)109 (6.5)
 07–086127 (15.2)92 (5.5)
 09–106476 (16.1)34 (2.0)
Age49.0 (±20.1)74.3 (±11.9)<0.0001
Sex
 Male18 883 (46.9)928 (55.0)<0.0001
 Female21 421 (53.1)758 (45.0)
Black
 No20 005 (49.6)1137 (67.4)<0.0001
 Yes8110 (20.1)283 (16.8)
 Missing12 189 (30.2)266 (15.8)
Hispanic
 No29 781 (73.9)1449 (85.9)<0.0001
 Yes10 523 (26.1)237 (14.1)
Education level
 <9th5223 (13.0)475 (28.2)<0.0001
 9–116201 (15.4)291 (17.3)
 HS degree8923 (22.1)336 (19.9)
 Some college or Associate’s9776 (24.3)348 (20.6)
 College degree7111 (17.6)218 (12.9)
 Missing3070 (7.6)18 (1.1)
 Ratio of family income to poverty threshold2.5 (±1.6)2.1 (±1.4)<0.0001
 Missing3565 (8.8)199 (11.8)
Total cholesterol198.1 (±43.2)196.2 (±47.0)0.1
 Missing4670 (11.6)455 (27.0)
HDL45.5 (±23.0)45.0 (±24.2)0.002
 Missing4672 (11.6)455 (27.0)
SBP124.8 (±20.3)142.9 (±26.8)<0.0001
 Missing4114 (10.2)409 (24.3)
DBP70.0 (±12.5)67.5 (±14.7)<0.0001
 Missing4359 (10.8)446 (26.5)
Number of blood pressure medications
 027 894 (69.2)434 (25.7)<0.0001
 110 205 (25.3)1098 (65.1)
 2 or more2205 (5.5)154 (9.1)
Type 2 diabetes
 No14 680 (36.4)398 (23.6)<0.0001
 Yes6229 (15.5)562 (33.3)
 Missing19 395 (48.1)726 (43.1)
Smoking
 No32 508 (80.7)1451 (86.1)<0.0001
 Yes7794 (19.3)235 (13.9)
 Missing2 (0.0)0 (0.0)
HEI46.9 (±11.0)51.0 (±10.3)<0.0001
 Missing4179 (10.4)459 (27.2)
AHEI47.1 (±11.1)48.0 (±10.9)0.006
 Missing4158 (10.3)458 (27.2)
MDS5.1 (±1.2)5.1 (±1.2)0.1
 Missing4472 (11.1)166 (9.8)
DASH47.4 (±9.4)48.1 (±9.2)0.01
 Missing11 774 (29.2)722 (42.8)
  • Descriptive summary of variables in those participants without CVD event (n=40 304) versus those with a CVD event (n=1686) during the follow-up period. Mean (±SD) reported for continuous variables and N (%) reported for categorical variables.

  • *Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables, eg, age, and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, eg, black race.

  • AHEI, Alternative Healthy Eating Index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HEI, Healthy Eating Index; MDS, Mediterranean Diet Score.