Table 1

Descriptive statistics on the study sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2010 linked to the 2011 National Death Index, n=41 990)

Training data for model derivationTest data for model evaluationP value for difference*
n=29 390n=12 600
CVD death
 No28 211 (96.0)12 093 (96.0)0.96
 Yes1179 (4.0)507 (4.0)
Heart disease death
 No28 507 (97.0)12 214 (96.9)0.76
 Yes883 (3.0)386 (3.1)
Cerebrovascular death
 No29 094 (99.0)12 479 (99.0)0.71
 Yes296 (1.0)121 (1.0)
 Time since interview (months)79.3 (±41.4)79.4 (±41.6)0.84
Wave
 99–003810 (13.0)1633 (13.0)1.0
 01–028853 (30.1)3795 (30.1)
 03–043926 (13.4)1684 (13.4)
 05–063891 (13.2)1669 (13.2)
 07–084353 (14.8)1866 (14.8)
 09–104557 (15.5)1953 (15.5)
Age50.0 (±20.4)50.1 (±20.6)0.60
Sex
 Male13 924 (47.4)5887 (46.7)0.22
 Female15 466 (52.6)6713 (53.3)
Black
 No14 807 (50.4)6335 (50.3)0.94
 Yes5882 (20.0)2511 (19.9)
 Missing8701 (29.6)3754 (29.8)
Hispanic
 No21 871 (74.4)9359 (74.3)0.77
 Yes7519 (25.6)3241 (25.7)
Education level
 <9th3942 (13.4)1756 (13.9)0.087
 9–114538 (15.4)1954 (15.5)
 HS degree6543 (22.3)2716 (21.6)
 Some college or Associate’s7138 (24.3)2986 (23.7)
 College degree5061 (17.2)2268 (18.0)
 Missing2168 (7.4)920 (7.3)
Ratio of family income to poverty threshold2.5 (±1.6)2.5 (±1.6)0.59
 Missing2655 (9.0)1109 (8.8)
Total cholesterol198.0 (±43.1)198.0 (±43.9)0.86
 Missing3641 (12.4)1484 (11.8)
HDL45.5 (±23.0)45.6 (±23.0)0.36
 Missing3643 (12.4)1484 (11.8)
SBP125.4 (±20.6)125.6 (±21.1)0.38
 Missing3175 (10.8)1348 (10.7)
DBP69.9 (±12.6)69.8 (±12.7)0.50
 Missing3374 (11.5)1431 (11.4)
Number of blood pressure medications
 019 892 (67.7)8436 (67.0)0.32
 17851 (26.7)3452 (27.4)
 2 or more1647 (5.6)712 (5.7)
Type 2 diabetes
 No10 537 (35.9)4541 (36.0)0.42
 Yes4783 (16.3)2008 (15.9)
 Missing14 070 (47.9)6051 (48.0)
Smoking
 No23 774 (80.9)10 185 (80.8)0.90
 Yes5615 (19.1)2414 (19.2)
 Missing1 (0.0)1 (0.0)
HEI47.0 (±11.0)47.2 (±11.0)0.28
 Missing3277 (11.2)1361 (10.8)
AHEI47.1 (±11.1)47.1 (±11.0)0.76
 Missing3263 (11.1)1353 (10.7)
MDS5.1 (±1.2)5.1 (±1.2)0.095
 Missing3270 (11.1)1368 (10.9)
DASH47.4 (±9.3)47.4 (±9.4)0.75
 Missing8835 (30.1)3661 (29.1)
  • Mean (±SD) reported for continuous variables and N (%) reported for categorical variables.

  • Statistics are grouped to reflect participants in the training (n=29 390/41 990=70%) or test (n=12 600/41 990=30%) data subsets.

  • *Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables, eg, age, and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, eg, black race.

  • AHEI, Alternative Healthy Eating Index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HEI, Healthy Eating Index; MDS, Mediterranean Diet Score.