Table 3

Associations between attitudes and behaviours with IPV in pregnancy

IPV in pregnancy mean (SD)No IPV in pregnancy mean (SD)Mean difference95% CI of mean differenceP value
Number of controlling behaviours by partner, max seven (partner tries to keep from seeing friends, restrict contact with birth family, insists on knowing whereabouts, ignores her, gets angry if she speaks to another man, is often suspicious of unfaithfulness, expects to be asked permission to seek healthcare)4.11 (2.07)3.19 (2.0)–0.93–1.38 to –0.48<0.01
Woman’s agreement with ‘husband has a good reason to hit his wife’, max eight (she does not complete household chores, she disobeys, she refuses sex, she asks him about girlfriends, he suspects she is unfaithful, she is unfaithful)3.09 (1.50)2.75 (1.56)–0.34–0.68 to –0.010.05
Woman’s attitudes to gender relations,max six (agrees with following statements: a good wife always obeys her husband even if she disagrees, family problems should only be discussed with people in the family/it is important for a man to show his wife who is the boss/a woman should be able to choose her own friend’s even if her husband disapproves/it’s a wife’s obligation to have sex even if she doesn’t feel like it/if a man mistreats his wife, others outside of the family should intervene)3.74 (1.32)3.70 (1.25)–0.04–0.32 to 0.240.76
Number of ‘good’ reasons women give for refusing sex, max four (if she does not want it, he is drunk, she is sick, he is mistreating her2.51 (1.12)2.53 (1.20)0.02–0.25 to 0.280.90
  • IPV, intimate partner violence.