Table 2

Items included in baseline and follow-up questionnaires

Participant characteristics and risk factorsDemographic characteristics, Chinese ethnic nationality, marital status, level of education, family income, type of career, pregnancy and parity history, age at menarche and menopause, frequency and amounts of daily smoking and alcoholic drinking, dietary habits, daily hours of sleep and sun exposure.
Fracture historyTime, fracture location (hip, spine, wrist and other non-vertebral sites, that is, clavicle, upper arm, shoulder, forearm, rib, pelvis, ankle, femur, tibia and fibula), causes and treatment of fracture; number of falls in the past years.
Medications for osteoporosis (currently taking or ever taken)Bone medications; calcium; vitamin D; oestrogen or hormone replacement; cortisone or prednisone.
Comorbidities (ever diagnosed) and related medications
  1. Cardiovascular or cerebrovascular conditions: cerebral infarction, cerebral haemorrhage, coronary disease, hyperglycaemia and hypertension.;

  2. Endocrine conditions: diabetes, hyperthyreosis, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and gout.

  3. Degenerative bone disease: prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc, lumbar spinal stenosis and knee osteoarthritis.

  4. Urologic diseases: chronic kidney diseases and kidney transplantation.

  5. Digestive system disease: hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic adipose infiltration, liver transplantation, alcoholic liver disease, gastritis and gastric ulcer.

  6. Other medical conditions: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous and cancer.

Physical activityIPAQ-SF.
Quality of lifeEQ-5D.
Osteoporosis riskOne minute test of the International Osteoporosis Foundation.
  • These examinations focus on possible causes and consequences of osteoporosis.

  • EQ-5D, EuroQol-5 dimension; IPAQ-SF, short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.