Table 2

Results of the multilevel growth model for mean scores of the Adolescent Mental Health and Problem Behavior Questionnaire-II (high schools in South Korea, n=827, year 2013–2016)

Model 1
(coef (SE))
Model 2
(coef (SE))
Model 3
(coef (SE))
Fixed effects
Baseline statusIntercept 14.93 (0.11)*** 14.38 (0.65)*** 13.87 (0.67)***
School type (ref: boys’ schools)
 Coeducational schools0.39 (0.31)0.33 (0.31)
 Girls’ schools 0.93 (0.40)* 1.00 (0.39)*
School mobility rate (%) 0.08 (0.04)* 0.09 (0.04)*
School dropout rate (%) 0.40 (0.05)*** 0.38 (0.05)***
Number of students per teacher−0.05 (0.04)−0.06 (0.04)
School budget per student (million)0.06 (0.02)** 0.05 (0.02)**
Number of counselling sessions (ln) 0.14 (0.05)**
Linear rate of changeIntercept1.46 (0.03)*** 1.70 (0.20)*** 1.59 (0.21)***
School type (ref: boys’ schools)
 Coeducational schools0.09 (0.10)0.10 (0.10)
 Girls’ schools−0.12 (0.12)−0.14 (0.12)
School mobility rate (%)−0.02 (0.01)−0.02 (0.01)
School dropout rate (%)−0.02 (0.02)−0.02 (0.02)
Number of students per teacher0.01 (0.01)0.02 (0.01)
School budget per student (million) 0.02 (0.01)*** 0.02 (0.01)***
Numbers of counselling sessions (ln)0.03 (0.01)*
Random effects
Level 1Temporal variation3.21 (0.11)***3.20 (0.11)***3.20 (0.11)***
Level 2Initial status5.56 (0.54)***4.36 (0.48)***4.25 (0.48)***
Linear rate of change0.22 (0.05)***0.20 (0.05)***0.19 (0.05)***
Covariance (initial status, linear rate of change)−0.58 (0.14)−0.50 (0.13)−0.48 (0.13)
Model information
R 2 (baseline status)21.6%23.5%
R 2 (rate of change)9.3%11.7%
AIC14 983.6314 804.3514 798.53
BIC15 020.2514 914.2214 920.62
Wald Embedded Image (df)2061.98 (1)***2248.11 (8)***2363.14 (15)***
LR test203.28 (12)***9.82 (2)**
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • AIC, Akaike Information Criterion; BIC, Bayesian Information Criterion;coef, intercept coefficient; ln, factor converted to natural logarithm; LR, Likelihood Ratio.