Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study subjects and transthoracic echocardiography results of the patients

Total
(n=3255)
e′≥7 group
(n=1384)
e′<7 and E/e′≤14 group
(n=1295)
e′<7 and E/e′>14 group
(n=578)
P valueCochran-Armitage trend test
Age, years, median (IQR)68 (56–76)57 (41–69)72 (64–78)76 (69–82)<0.001
Age >70*, (%)1417 (43.5)299 (21.6)705 (54.4)413 (71.5)<0.001<0.001
Male*, (%)1708 (52.4)679 (49.1)777 (60.0)252 (43.6)<0.0010.84
BMI, mean (SD)23.2 (4.8)22.8 (4.0)23.6 (5.7)23.4 (4.4)<0.001<0.001
Diabetes*, (%)969 (29.8)291 (21.0)433 (33.4)245 (42.4)<0.001<0.001
Hypertension*, (%)1756 (53.9)518 (37.4)805 (62.2)433 (74.9)<0.001<0.001
Dyslipidemia*, (%)979 (30.1)296 (21.4)429 (33.1)254 (43.9)<0.001<0.001
Ischaemic heart disease*, (%)925 (28.4)262 (18.9)424 (32.7)239 (41.4)<0.001<0.001
Chronic kidney disease*, (%)427 (13.1)114 (8.2)174 (13.4)139 (24.1)<0.001<0.001
LVDd, cm, mean (SD)4.61 (0.51)4.66 (0.49)4.57 (0.51)4.54 (0.57)<0.001
LVDs, cm, mean (SD)3.03 (0.38)3.05 (0.36)3.02 (0.37)3.00 (0.42)<0.001
IVSTd, cm, mean (SD)0.81 (0.17)0.75 (0.14)0.84 (0.15)0.90 (0.20)<0.001
LVPWd, cm, mean (SD)0.79 (0.14)0.75 (0.12)0.82 (0.13)0.85 (0.15)<0.001
RWT, mean (SD)0.35 (0.07)0.33 (0.06)0.36 (0.06)0.38 (0.07)<0.001
LVMI, g/m, mean (SD)2 74.9 (21.0)68.8 (18.2)77.0 (19.7)85.2 (25.2)<0.001
High LVMI*, (M>115, F>95) (%)272 (8.4)58 (4.2)102 (7.9)112 (19.4)<0.001<0.001
LAD, cm, mean (SD)3.42 (0.58)3.28 (0.55)3.46 (0.56)3.69 (0.60)<0.001
LAVI, mL/m, mean (SD)2 20.9 (9.5)19.1 (7.6)20.8 (10.4)25.8 (9.8)<0.001
High LAVI*, (>34) (%)180 (6.1)42 (3.3)51 (4.4)87 (16.2)<0.001<0.001
EF, %, mean (SD)63.3 (4.1)63.6 (3.9)63.1 (4.1)63.1 (4.4)0.0025
E, cm/s, mean (SD)70.4 (18.8)76.2 (18.1)60.0 (12.8)79.8 (20.6)<0.001
A, cm/s, mean (SD)79.1 (27.0)68.9 (20.3)81.2 (29.8)99.1 (22.3)<0.001
E/A ratio, mean (SD)0.97 (0.43)1.20 (0.49)0.78 (0.23)0.85 (0.35)<0.001
Dec time, mean (SD)228.6 (60.3)210.4 (49.2)239.6 (60.0)247.9 (72.4)<0.001
e′ velocity, mean (SD)7.0 (2.6)9.4 (2.3)5.5 (0.9)4.6 (1.0)< 0.001
a′ velocity, mean (SD)9.3 (2.2)9.7 (2.4)9.4 (2.0)8.4 (2.0)<0.001
E/e′, mean (SD)11.0 (4.2)8.4 (2.3)10.8 (2.0)17.8 (3.9)<0.001
HR, bpm69.8 (13.5)69.3 (13.3)70.1 (13.5)70.5 (13.9)0.19
  • P values were calculated using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, and one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables. Values are number (%), mean (SD) or median (IQR).

  • *Potential risk-adjusting variables selected for cox proportional hazard model (the model 1).

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; EF, ejection fraction; HR, heart rate; IVSTd, diastolic interventricular septal wall thickness; LAVI, left atrial volume index; LVDd, left ventricular diastolic dimension; LVDs, left ventricular systolic dimension; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; LVPWd, diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness; RWT, relative wall thickness.