Table 3

Distribution of balance for covariates before and after matching by propensity score matching (PSM) in passive and active engagement groups

Balance variablesPassive engagementActive engagement
Before matching (n=1063)After matching (n=730)Before matching (n=1063)After matching (n=444)
Passive group
(n=642)
Non- passive group
(n=421)
Standardised difference*Passive group
(n=365)
Non-passive group
(n=365)
Standardised difference*Active group
(n=176)
Non-active group
(n=887)
Standardised difference*Active group
(n=176)
Non-active group
(n=268)
Standardised difference*
Age (years)62.5766.730.4166.4765.02−0.1561.6064.740.3461.6061.630.004
Sex
 Male respondents0.420.490.130.520.47−0.090.380.460.180.380.370.01
Marital status
 Married0.810.77−0.100.770.790.050.860.790.190.860.84−0.06
Highest obtained education
 Elementary school0.490.560.130.640.58−0.120.430.540.220.430.480.11
 High school or higher0.430.27−0.330.230.310.180.530.33−0.420.530.47−0.14
Ethnicity
 Chinese ethnic group0.810.79−0.060.780.800.050.840.800.090.840.850.03
Religious belief
 Have religious belief0.880.86−0.050.860.860.020.880.870.020.880.880.02
 Employment status
 Part-time employed0.160.11−0.140.100.130.090.200.13−0.220.200.19−0.05
 Full-time or self-employed0.320.25−0.150.250.270.040.320.29−0.070.320.31−0.02
Monthly household income (SGD)
 1000–29990.290.320.060.360.32−0.080.240.310.170.240.270.08
 >30000.510.39−0.250.370.420.110.540.45−0.190.540.51−0.07
Housing type
 3–4-room HDB flat0.550.620.120.650.62−0.060.470.600.270.470.500.07
 5-room HDB flat and others0.380.31−0.150.280.320.100.490.33−0.340.490.45−0.09
Physical activity levels (hours)
 Light intensity6.493.43−0.352.523.690.219.094.52−0.429.097.23−0.16
 Moderate intensity2.461.42−0.181.021.590.133.301.80−0.243.303.27−0.004
 Vigorous intensity0.320.16−0.170.110.160.090.510.20−0.240.510.36−0.11
 Strength and balance0.780.51−0.190.460.560.131.000.61−0.231.000.72−0.18
 All physical activities10.055.52−0.394.116.010.2513.917.13−0.4813.9111.57−0.15
  • *Standardised difference=difference in means or proportions divided by SE are shown; balance defined as absolute value less than 0.25 (small effect size).

  • SGD, Singapore dollar.