Table 2

Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults (N=2867)

CharacteristicsAnxiety and depressive symptoms
COR95% CIAOR95% CI
Presence of multimorbidity
 No11
 Yes1.391.18 to 1.641.331.11 to 1.58
Age (years)
 30–391
 40–490.950.77 to 1.77
 50–591.140.92 to 1.40
 60–691.020.78 to 1.40
 ≥701.260.85 to 1.88
Gender
 Male11
 Female2.582.17 to 3.052.402.01 to 2.87
Education
 Postgraduate11
 Higher/graduate0.890.71 to 1.130.860.67 to 1.09
 Secondary1.150.89 to 1.481.050.78 to 1.40
 Primary1.220.81 to 1.851.110.70 to 1.77
 No education1.951.48 to 2.571.511.094 to 2.07
Income (rupees)
 >55 0001
 40 000–54 9990.910.69 to 1.17
 25 000–39 9990.990.76 to 1.28
 16 001–24 9991.080.81 to 1.43
 <16 0001.020.79 to 1.32
Occupation
 Professional office job11
 Non-manual work0.780.58 to 1.060.810.58 to 1.13
 Labour work1.220.95 to 1.571.341.00 to 1.79
 Skilled worker1.150.85 to 1.551.290.93 to 1.78
 Unskilled worker1.170.87 to 1.591.060.75 to 1.48
 Unemployed0.850.71 to 1.140.900.68 to 1.18
Marital status
 Currently married11
 Never married0.780.58 to 1.050.870.62 to 1.17
 Widowed/separated/divorced1.451.03 to 2.031.020.72 to 1.48
Number of children
 No child11
 1–20.680.56 to 0.830.680.56 to 0.84
 3 and above0.840.68 to 1.040.740.59 to 0.93
Ethnicity
 Sindhi11
 Punjabi1.841.31 to 2.581.661.16 to 2.37
 Balochi1.260.74 to 2.141.320.76 to 2.30
 Pashtu1.681.12 to 2.511.390.90 to 2.13
 Urdu1.451.11 to 1.891.351.00 to 1.81
 Others1.841.32 to 2.561.521.07 to 2.17
Home status
 Own1
 Rent0.960.81 to 1.14
 Other arrangement0.700.44 to 1.10
Smoking status
 No1
 Yes0.800.65 to 1.00
Visiting faith healer
 No11
 Yes2.441.96 to 3.032.291.82 to 2.88
  • For AOR, only variables with p value <0.250 in univariate analysis were entered into adjusted model using stepwise selection (presence of multimorbidity, gender, education, occupation, marital status, number of children, ethnicity and visiting faith healer).

  • AOR, adjusted OR;COR, unadjusted OR.