Table 1

Comparison of the characteristics of the populations in four subgroups

VariablesInternal migrants
(n=235)
Returned population
(n=600)
Rural residents
(n=2118)
Urban residents
(n=569)
Total
(n=3522)
P value*
Gender
 Male85 (36.2)217 (36.2)889 (42.0)270 (47.5)1461 (41.5)<0.001
 Female150 (63.8)383 (63.8)1229 (58.0)299 (52.5)2061 (58.5)
Age (years)
 15–74 (31.5)66 (11.0)202 (9.5)81 (14.2)423 (12.0)<0.001
 30–67 (28.5)141 (23.5)354 (16.7)120 (21.1)682 (19.4)
 45–94 (40.0)393 (65.5)1562 (73.8)368 (64.7)2417 (68.6)
Marital status
 Married189 (80.4)516 (86.0)1855 (87.6)448 (78.7)3008 (85.4)<0.001
 Single/divorced/widowed46 (19.6)84 (14.0)263 (12.4)121 (21.3)514 (14.6)
Education level
 Illiteracy/primary school68 (28.9)232 (38.6)1246 (58.8)86 (15.1)1632 (46.3)<0.001
 Middle school73 (31.1)178 (29.7)632 (29.9)165 (29.0)1048 (29.8)
 Senior/high/equivalent school55 (23.4)100 (16.7)204 (9.6)187 (32.9)546 (15.5)
 College and above39 (16.6)90 (15.0)36 (1.7)131 (23.0)296 (8.4)
Household size
 Alone18 (7.7)15 (2.5)29 (1.4)20 (3.5)82 (2.3)<0.001
 With one to two family members63 (26.8)171 (28.5)468 (22.1)277 (48.7)979 (27.8)
 With three to four family members90 (38.3)246 (41.0)855 (40.4)185 (32.5)1376 (39.1)
 With five or more family members64 (27.2)168 (28.0)766 (36.1)87 (15.3)1085 (30.8)
Household income per capita
 Low43 (18.3)186 (31.0)1135 (53.6)68 (11.9)1432 (40.7)<0.001
 Middle93 (39.6)214 (35.7)695 (32.8)199 (35.0)1201 (34.1)
 High99 (42.1)200 (33.3)288 (13.6)302 (53.1)889 (25.2)
Occupation status
 Self-employed32 (13.6)43 (7.2)139 (6.5)33 (5.8)247 (7.0)<0.001
 Agricultural16 (6.8)161 (26.8)1044 (49.3)30 (5.3)1251 (35.5)
 Unemployed65 (27.7)198 (33.0)641 (30.3)280 (49.2)1184 (33.6)
 Employer/employees122 (51.9)198 (33.0)294 (13.9)226 (39.7)840 (23.9)
Weekly working hours
 0–88 (37.5)264 (44.0)971 (45.8)310 (54.5)1633 (46.3)<0.001
 20–12 (5.1)68 (11.3)286 (13.5)45 (7.9)411 (11.7)
 40–80 (34.0)181 (30.2)506 (23.9)159 (27.9)926 (26.3)
 60–55 (23.4)87 (14.5)355 (16.8)55 (9.7)552 (15.7)
Monthly working days
 0–118 (50.2)342 (57.0)1125 (53.1)411 (72.2)1996 (56.7)<0.001
 23–117 (49.8)258 (43.0)993 (46.9)158 (27.8)1526 (43.3)
Economic development of the region
 Low41 (17.4)195 (32.5)838 (39.6)152 (26.7)1226 (34.8)<0.001
 Middle30 (12.8)131 (21.8)531 (25.1)156 (27.4)848 (24.1)
 High164 (69.8)274 (45.7)749 (35.3)261 (45.9)1448 (41.1)
Social medical insurance
 None47 (20.0)47 (7.8)136 (6.4)54 (9.5)284 (8.1)<0.001
 NRCMS98 (41.7)339 (56.5)1897 (89.6)61 (10.7)2395 (68.0)
 URBMI21 (8.9)58 (9.7)23 (1.1)176 (30.9)278 (7.9)
 Doubly/multi-insured38 (16.2)55 (9.2)22 (1.0)75 (13.2)190 (5.4)
 UEBMI31 (13.2)101 (16.8)40 (1.9)203 (35.7)375 (10.6)
Social class3.71 (1.87)3.93 (1.83)3.96 (1.79)4.14 (1.84)3.97 (1.81)
Social connection8.60 (2.63)10.37 (2.48)11.26 (2.16)9.81 (2.42)10.70 (2.43)
Size of friend network
 052 (22.1)121 (20.2)392 (18.5)88 (15.5)653 (18.6)0.002
 1–235 (14.9)65 (10.8)207 (9.8)74 (13.0)381 (10.8)
 3–584 (35.8)190 (31.7)670 (31.6)170 (29.9)1114 (31.6)
 6–64 (27.2)224 (37.3)849 (40.1)237 (41.6)1374 (39.0)
BMI
 Overweight54 (23.0)151 (25.2)496 (23.4)187 (32.9)888 (25.2)<0.001
 Obesity16 (6.8)55 (9.2)162 (7.6)47 (8.3)280 (8.0)
 Thin37 (15.7)54 (9.0)260 (12.3)52 (9.1)403 (11.4)
 Normal128 (54.5)340 (56.6)1200 (56.7)283 (49.7)1951 (55.4)
Smoking
 Non-smoker177 (75.3)457 (76.2)1571 (74.2)390 (68.5)2595 (73.7)0.061
 Former smoked8 (3.4)30 (5.0)93 (4.4)33 (5.8)164 (4.6)
 Smoking50 (21.3)113 (18.8)454 (21.4)146 (25.7)763 (21.7)
Drinking
 Never drank189 (80.4)502 (83.7)1772 (83.7)462 (81.2)2925 (83.0)0.122
 Former drank4 (1.7)15 (2.5)76 (3.6)24 (4.2)119 (3.4)
 Regularly drinking42 (17.9)83 (13.8)270 (12.7)83 (14.6)478 (13.6)
Self-rated health
 Excellent/very good82 (34.9)174 (29.0)485 (22.9)198 (34.8)939 (26.7)<0.001
 Average94 (40.0)214 (35.7)616 (29.1)219 (38.5)1143 (32.4)
 Poor/worse59 (25.1)212 (35.3)1017 (48.0)152 (26.7)1440 (40.9)
  • *P values were based on the χ2 test.

  • NRCMS, New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme; UEBMI, Urban Employee-based Basic Medical Insurance; URBMI, Urban Resident-based Basic Medical Insurance.