Table 1

Baseline characteristics

VariableResultsNo. (%) tested
Age mean (SD)88.4 (6.5)380 (100)
Female No. (%)275 (72.4)380 (100)
Marital status No. (%)372 (97.9)
 Widowed221 (59.4)
 Married108 (29)
 Divorced31 (3.2)
 Never married12 (3.2)
Housing No. (%)372 (97.9)
 House/apartment219 (58.8)
 Retirement home110 (29.6)
 Assisted living43 (11.6)
Clinical frailty scale mean (SD)5.6 (0.8)380 (100)
 <4 No. (%)5 (1.3)
 4 No. (%)33 (8.7)
 5 No. (%)112 (29.5)
 6 No. (%)192 (50.5)
 7 No. (%)38 (10)
EuroQol EQ-5D-5L mean (SD)0.72 (0.18)327 (86.1)
EuroQol visual analogue scale mean (SD)71.5 (18.7)321 (84.5)
Montreal cognitive assessment mean (SD)20.6 (6.4)321 (84.5)
5-point geriatric depression scale mean (SD)1.3 (1.3)329 (86.6)
Gait speed metres/second mean (SD)0.59 (0.30)326 (85.8)
Grip strength kg. mean (SD) - males23.2 (9.0)84 (80.0)
Grip strength kg. mean (SD) - females13.6 (16.6)231 (84.0)
Water swallow test – failed No. (%)67 (21.8)307 (80.8)
Mini-nutritional assessment short form mean (SD)11.8 (2.1)308 (81.1)
Systolic BP mm hg mean (SD)134.6 (15.9)324 (85.3)
Diastolic BP mm hg mean (SD)68.7 (8.8)324 (85.3)
Orthostatic drop SBP >20 mm hg - sit to stand
No. (%)
22 (7.1)308 (81.1)
Haemoglobin <110 No. (%)44 (11.9)370 (97.4)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate mL/min/1.73 m2 mean (SD)57.4 (19.9)375 (98.7)
Haemoglobin A1c >6.9% No. (%)27 (8.9)304 (80.0)
Diseases No. (%)380 (100)
 Neurological222 (58.4)
 Respiratory96 (25.3)
 Cardiac248 (65.3)
 Cancer47 (12.9)
 Osteoporotic fracture141 (37.1)
 Osteoarthritis/chronic pain226 (59.5)
 Dementia diagnosis140 (36.8)
 Mood disorder187 (49.2)
Multiple (>2) comorbidities No. (%)324 (85.3)380 (100)
Number of Drugs mean (SD)6.0 (3.2)359 (94.5)
  • BP, blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.